Centers, groups, and clients: Overview

Below the level of the branch, your MFI can have centers and groups to organize and empower clients. Usually, a single Loan Officer works in a center and has responsibility for several groups. If there is a center, it determines the meeting schedule (if there is one) for all the groups contained in it. (Otherwise, the branch does this.)

Groups include clients; they can sometimes act as a unit, as in the case where a group has a savings or loan account, and all clients in that group contribute to it.

Clients can act on their own, with individual savings and loan accounts, or they can act as part of a group.


How To Setup Mifos: Overview

This manual contains information on the use of Mifos once it has been installed and configured. For information on what needs to happen before you start to use Mifos, check the following sections.

System recommendations

Before you install Mifos, you must read the system recommendations and be sure that your system is suitable to run Mifos.

Latest release notes

The release notes for each release of Mifos are here. Read them to find important information about the latest release, including known issues.

Installation guide

The installation guide gives you all the instructions you need to install Mifos.

Configuration guide

The configuration guide includes instructions on all the operations that must occur before you starting working with Mifos.

Deployment methodology

The deployment guide includes tips and advice for deploying Mifos independently through community with support via our mailing lists..

Maintenance and post-deployment planning

The maintenance section of the Mifos knowledge base includes information on maintaining Mifos and on planning for future releases.

How to use this manual

Table of contents

To read any of the sections listed on the left, click the section name.

Using links

Any text in blue is a link; click it to open a Web site. For example, the Mifos configuration guide is stored on a Web site, and you may need to refer to it or change some of its details.

Searching for information

All information in this manual is indexed by Google. If you go to the Google.com site and type words or phrases in the search box, this manual will be searched for those words or phrases.

Tips and techniques

In this manual, we present several helpful tips that we and our users have found to make operation of Mifos easier. You may find other helpful tips under the FAQ section of this manual.

Glossary

The glossary in this manual (see the appendix) explains some finance terms and some terms that are used by MFIs for their work.  It also includes definitions of terms used in Mifos.

Document conventions

These are the rules for how information is presented in this manual.

How to log on and log out

  1. Open a browser and navigate to the URL for Mifos (provided by your system administrator)
  2. The login screen appears
    mifoslogin
  3. In the Username box, type the username provided for you on Mifos.
  4. In the Password box, type the password provided for you, and click the Login button.
  5. The main Mifos window appears.
Note: The first time you log on, Mifos will show a screen to change your password immediately to one of your own choosing. See the How to change your password section for how to change your password after this.

To log out, click the Logout button in the upper right corner of the screen.

How to change your password

  1. In the upper right corner of the Mifos screen, click Your settings. A list of all current settings appears.
  2. Click Change password. The following screen appears:
    mifoschangepassword
  3. In the Old Password box, type your current password.
  4. In the New Password box, type the new password. It must be at least 6 characters long, letters and/or numbers. It cannot be longer than 20 characters.
  5. In the Confirm New Password box, type the new password again.
  6. Click Submit.

How to navigate within Mifos


Tabs


The tabs near the top of the screen

mifoshometab

show you the main sections of Mifos. Click any of these to move to that section. For example, if you click the Admin tab, this screen appears:

mifosadminscreen

Left navigation panel


On the left, links marked "Quick Start" will take you to commonly used operations.

When you are in different sections of Mifos, the left navigation panel does different things:

Opening screen

When you first login to Mifos, you see a screen that looks much like this:

mifosopeningscreen

Searching

Any time you see a Search box, as in the illustration above, you can go directly to a client, centre, group, or savings/loan account. Type the centre/group/client name, the system ID (for a client, group, or center), client's government ID, or loan/savings account number, and click Search. If there are more than one possible responses, a list appears, which might look like the following;

 mifosmultiplesearchresult

In this case, click the correct one to view it.

Procedure steps

Some procedures (like creating a loan account) have several steps. In those situations, a bar across the screen tells you which step you are in. It might look like this:

 mifosprocedurebar

 

How to go back to a previous page

You can always press your browser's Back button to retrace your steps within Mifos.

You can also see the path you have taken near the top of the screen, just underneath the tabs. (This path is sometimes called a "breadcrumb trail.")

Click anywhere on this path to return to that section.

Editable and noneditable fields

Depending on the choices you made during configuration, and on your role within Mifos, you may not be able to edit some fields. If you try to type something in these fields, you see an error message like this:

insufficient_permission

In addition, some fields may appear gray or dim; this is another sign that you may not change those fields.

Data entry

All data entry screens in the system behave in the same way. Note the following:


How to set up MFI operations: Overview

If you are setting up the operations for a microfinance institution (MFI) for the first time, you need to make decisions about its structure, its rules, its user members, and their roles. Some of these decisions must be made immediately, and some will be needed only when the MFI becomes more complex. Other decisions are completely optional.

In the process of configuring Mifos (see the Configuration guide), you or your administrator made many other decisions, such as the language in which Mifos is displayed to you. If you are looking for ways to control Mifos behavior and do not see them shown here, check the configuration file again.
We recommend that you make the decisions in this order, if they apply to your situation:

  1. Create any additional fields that you will need to create offices
  2. Create and/or view an existing MFI structure, including all offices
  3. Create roles and permissions for system users
  4. Create system users
  5. Create rules for data display (labels, lookup options, additional fields)
  6. Define accepted payment types
  7. Create fees
  8. Create fund types
  9. Set product categories
  10. Create checklists (optional)
  11. Create holidays
  12. Define products (loans and savings accounts)

How to set office structure

Your MFI can have as many as five levels of offices, which can be organized according to geographical or functional divisions. All users and clients of the MFI must be attached to offices.

The head office is the main or parent office for an MFI. Mifos automatically creates it, and there can be only one in an MFI. During initial configuration (see the Configuration guide), you must decide on specifications for at least one branch office; this is the level at which all client interactions take place. You can also decide on specifications for the other three types of offices, which are optional.

The following screenshot shows how to choose which levels of offices you want in Mifos.

 INSERT SCREENSHOT HERE OF VIEW OFFICE HIERARCHY

Once you have decided how many levels of office to have and have configured them, you can add more instances of each of them, if you have the appropriate permissions.

Once you have defined an office as a head office or branch office, you cannot change it to a different office type, such as regional office, sub regional office, or area office. However, you can change the offices of these three optional types to any other level except for the head office level.

TIP:  If you work in an area office or a head office and also want to offer services directly to clients, you must create a "virtual branch office" and assign clients to it.

To view and update the existing office hierarchy, click Admin > View Office Hierarchy.

 

How to work with offices

Once you understand the current hierarchy of offices, you can view existing offices, define new ones (if you have the appropriate permissions), and change the specifications for existing offices.

How to view existing offices

Click Admin > View Offices. You might see a screen like this:
2mifosviewoffice.png

If a level of office is checked (this is set during configuration, see How to Set Office Structure), it is possible to create offices at that level.

Click the name of any office to see details about it, as shown below.

  mifosviewofficedetail.png

How to define an office

You can define an office two ways:

Either way, you see this screen next:

mifoscreateoffice.png

 Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

 Box

 Description

 Example

 Office details



 Office name

The name of the office

 Kakakpura

 Office short name

A short name for the office

 knkp

 Office code

The office code

 Code 1

 Office type

Area Office, Branch Office, etc.

 Area Office

 Parent office

The office that is a level higher in the office hierarchy

 Office 1

 Office address



Office address


#224 Wheeler Road, NGEF Layout,

Cooke Town, Bangalore,

Karnataka, India, 560090

+91 80 23456787

 Additional information



 Custom field

Type additional custom information in fields 1-6. See How to define and change additional fields for information on how to create custom fields.


  1. Click Preview to check your entries.
  2. If you want to change anything, click Edit Office Information to return to the earlier screen.
  3. When the entries are correct, click Submit to save them. (If you want to discard all information about this office, click Cancel.)
    The new office appears in the display of offices you can see when you click Admin > View Offices.

How to change the details of offices

  1. From the details screen for a specific office, click Edit Office Information. Use the table above for information on how to fill in new information for the office details.
  2. Click Preview to review your changes. If you want to make further changes, click Edit Office Information, make those changes, and click Preview again.
  3. When you are satisfied with your changes, click Submit to save the changes.

How to work with roles, permissions, and system users

Before you create the system users (such as loan officers) who will deal directly with clients, you must decide what their roles are and what permissions they will have. You must have appropriate permissions to create roles.

Before beginning, note the following terms:

Personnel hierarchies and office hierarchies

The personnel hierarchy has two levels:

The following table illustrates how these two hierarchies are related.

 User's office hierarchy

 Personnel hierarchy  Permission  Applies to branch B1  Applies to Branch B2
 Branch B1  Loan officer  Edit MFI and personal information**  Yes*  No
 Branch B2  Other  Edit MFI and personal information**  Yes  No
 Headquarters  Other  Edit MFI and personal information**
 Yes  Yes
 Branch B2
 Loan officer
 Edit MFI and personal information**
 No  Yes*

 

*- Permissions apply only to centers, groups, and clients assigned to the loan officer 

**- This is an example of a permission. See the full listing of possible permissions in Default roles and their activities

How to work with roles and permissions

Many system users can have the same role.

How to create a role

  1. Click Admin > Manage Roles and Permissions.
    If some roles are already defined, you might see a screen like this:

    2mifosviewroles
  2. To define a new role, click the New Role link.
    A screen with many types of possible permissions appears. A partial list looks like this:

    mifospermissionlist.png
  3. In the Role Name box, type a name for this role (such as Loan Officer or Branch Administrator). Note that loan officers can see information only on their clients.
  4. If you want to give a role all personnel permissions, for example, check the Personnel box. If you want to give the role only certain of these permissions, check them individually.
  5. When you are satisfied with the permissions you have assigned to this role, click Submit.

How to change a role

  1. Click Admin > Manage Roles and Permissions.
    The list of defined roles appears.
  2. Click a role to see the screen with all its permissions.
  3. Check and uncheck boxes to make any changes.
  4. When you are satisfied with the changes you have made, click Submit.

How to work with system users

When you create system users (the people who deal directly with clients), they are always associated with an existing office. Make sure that you have created the office before you create the system user. You must have appropriate permissions to create and change users.

How to create a system user

  1. Click Admin > Define New System User.
    A list of existing offices appears, organized by type of office. It might look like the following:

    mifossystemusers.png
  2. Click the office that the new system user will belong to.
  3. Enter user details as explained in the following table. All fields marked with a red asterisk (*) are mandatory.

Field name

Description

Example

Office

 

 

Office

The office the user is attached to.

Meru

User details

 

 

First Name, Middle Name, Second Last Name, Last Name

User's full names

Kamalamma, Leela

National ID

Any form of authorized ID in your country that can be used to identify the person uniquely from the rest of the population, such as a national ID, passport number, etc.  The user is uniquely identified using the combination of the government ID, Name and Date of Birth.

A440/2001

Email

 

 

Date of Birth

 

12 Jan, 1970

Marital Status

 

Married

Gender

 

Female

Language Preferred

Language preferred by the user

Spanish

MFI Joining Date

 

12 Dec, 2005

Address

 

 

Address

Address 1, Address 2, Address 3, City/District, State, Country, Postal Code, Telephone

#154, Wheeler Road, Cooke Town, Bangalore, Karnataka

India

560045

Permissions

 

 

User Title

The user's title

CFO

User Hierarchy

Defines the user's data scope in the system

Other

Roles

Select the authorized role(s) to assign to the user.   The user can be assigned more than one role.

Manager; Admin

Login Information

 

 

User name

The name must be unique in the entire system.

kamalammal

Password, Confirm password

The password must be at least 6 characters.

*

Additional Information

 

 

Custom fields 1-6

Type additional custom information in fields 1–6. See “How to define and change additional fields” for information on how to create custom fields. LINK HERE

 

 

  1. When you have filled out all appropriate fields, click Preview to review your work.
  2. If you want to make changes, or if any error messages identify fields that you have not specified, click Edit User Information, make those changes, and click Preview again.
  3. When you are satisfied with all details, click Submit. (If you decide not to create a system user at this time, click Cancel.)
    You then see a message confirming the new user, including that user's system ID number. It might look like this:                          mifosuserconfirm.png

How to view existing system users

  1. To see the details on any existing system user, click Admin > View System Users, type the name of the user, and click the Search button.
  2. All users with that name appear, identified by their office.

    mifosusersearch.png
  3. When you see the one you were searching for, click that name to see details on that user.

How to change a system user

  1. Search for details on a system user in any of the following ways:

How to define and change fees

Your MFI can charge customer fees for the various services you offer. Reasons for charging a fee can vary from one MFI to another.

Mifos gives flexibility to MFIs and branches to define fee instances to meet their requirements. Examples of fee instances are a client creation fee, a training fee, and an account creation fee.

How to define a fee type

  1. Click Admin > Define New Fees.
    You see a screen like the following:

    mifosdefinefee.png
  2. Enter specifications using the descriptions in the following table:
 Field  Description  Example
 Fee name
 Name for the fee
 Training fee
 Fee applies to
 Level of organization where this fee will apply
 Center
 Default fee
 Check if fee is charged to all
 Check
 Frequency

 How often the fee is assessed: Period (every month, for example) or One Time.

If you select One Time, in the list below it, select the time at which this fee will be charged. In the Amount box, type the amount of the fee

 One time
 Calculate fee as

Use this if you want to calculate the fee as a fixed amount or a percentage of another amount.

If you have configured Mifos to use multiple currencies for loan products, you can specify the currency for a fixed-amount loan fee.
A given fee can be applied multiple times to a customer account.  Interest is never charged on the fee amount.

The system will match the periodicity of the fee to the meeting schedule or repayment schedule, depending on whether it’s a client fee for example (tied to meeting schedule) or a loan fee (tied to repayment schedule).

Fees are computed automatically by the system.

 5 % of loan amount
 GL Code
 General ledger code that applies to this fee (these codes are set during configuration)
 


 

  1. When you have made all your decisions, click Preview to see a summary.
  2. If you have skipped any required fields, you see an error message such as the following: mifosfeeerror.png
  3. Fix any errors in the Define New Fees screen.
  4. When you are satisfied with the fee, click Submit to save it. (If you decide not to create a new fee at this time, click Cancel.)

How to view existing fee types

Before creating any new fees, look at the existing fee types to see if the one you want already exists.

Click Admin > View Fees.
You might see a screen like this:

mifosviewfees

How to change a fee

  1. From the View Fees screen, click an existing fee to see its details.
  2. Use the information above to decide how to change the details for this fee.
  3. Click Preview to see a summary of the fee details.
  4. When you are satisfied, click Submit to save the new fee.

How to apply fees/charges

Your MFI can charge fees for any service, such as membership and loan processing. These fees and charges can be collected from centers, groups, and clients and assessed on loan accounts. To apply charges, follow these instructions:
  1. If the fees are for the services provided to a center, group, or client, in any Search box, type the name of the center, group, or client and click Search. In the list that appears, click the link for the correct one. In the details page that appears, in the Account Information and Center/Group/Client charges section, click View Details and then Apply Charges.

    2mifosgroupcharges.png

  2. If the fees are for a specific loan account, in any Search box, type the ID for the account and click Search, or navigate to that account from the center/client/group details page. Click the link that appears for that loan. In the details page that appears, in the Transactions box in the upper right corner, click Apply Charges.

    2mifostransactions.png

  3. Click Apply Charges. A screen like the following appears:

    mifosapplycharge.png

  4. In the Select Charge Type list, click the appropriate charge. If there is a set amount for this charge, it appears in the Amount box.
  5. In the Amount box, type the amount to apply.
  6. Click Submit.

The charge now appears in the Upcoming Charges and the Recent Account Activity list. It will appear in Transaction History when posted. 

 

Early Repayment of Fees

This feature provides MFIs the ability to collect fees in advance of the repayment date. However, early repayment of fees is applicable only at the client, group and center level. It cannot be applied to loan accounts. 

This feature, part of Mifos 2.1, enables fees to be assessed and collected up-front at the time in which they've been assessed. Specifically, this feature could be used by MFIs to charge a fee for withdrawal from a savings account. Currently, Mifos does not provide any option to assign penalties or fees to a savings account. If your MFI has a business need to charge fee for withdrawal from a savings account, the early fee repayment feature can be used to assign and charge that fee at the client level (as described in the section below).

When an early payment is made, it is paid off in the following order:

In general, fee repayment can be entered into the system in two ways: 

The Apply payment feature can be used to collect fee payment before the meeting, on the day of meeting and back-dating of meeting.

Collection Sheet Entry cannot be used to make an early repayment of fee for a meeting date which has not occurred yet . It can either collect payments on the day of the meeting or it can be used to collect back-dated payments before the next meeting date. 

The next section describes the process of applying fee repayment through apply payment and collection sheet entry.

For each of the below scenarios, let's assume the following scenario:  The entity (client, group, or center) has a monthly meeting date of Dec 5.  You would like to apply and collect a fee either before this meeting date or on the day of the meeting.

Without the early repayment capability, any fees applied wouldn't be able to be collected until the next meeting date.

Basic scenarios for early repayment of fees for a monthly meeting date of Dec 5
 Action: Without Early Repayment of Fees With Early Repayment of Fees 
Apply and collect payment of fee on Dec 1 (early)

Apply Payment: Fee can be applied prior to meeting but not collected until Dec 5. 

Collection Sheet: N/A 

Apply Payment: Fee can be applied prior to meeting and collected on Dec 1. 

Collection Sheet: N/A 

Apply and collect payment of fee on Dec 5 (day of meeting)

Apply Payment: Fee can be applied to account but not collected till next meeting, Jan 5. 

Collection Sheet: Fee will not show up as due under A/C column until next meeting for Jan 5. 

Apply Payment: Fee can be applied to account and collected on Dec 5. 

Collection Sheet: Fee will show up as due under A/C column for meeting on Dec 5.  

 

The steps below outline in detail the process you would follow to complete each of these scenarios.

Additional scenarios including back-dating of fees are covered in detail on the Early Repayment of Fees functional specification.

Early fee repayment through apply payment: 

When a payment is made at the center/group/client level, the payment applies only to fees. The sections below describe how early fee repayment can be made through apply payment feature.

Early fee repayment at the Center Level 

When a payment is made at the center level, the payment applies only to fees. To make an early fee repayment at the center level, select the center for which the fee needs to be collected. This can be done as follows:

1. In any search box type the name of the center for which you want a fee applied and click Search. The center(s) matching the search string you provided will be displayed. The page will look something like this:

 

 2. Select the required center. A screen similar to the following will be displayed:

  

  

       

 3. Under Center Charges in the Account Information section displayed above, click View Details. A screen with the following sections is displayed:

Apply transactions - This section allows the user to enter loan repayment details (apply payment), modify entered loan repayment details (apply adjustment) and apply charges to the center like fee, penalty, etc (apply charges).

Account Summary - This sections shows the amount due at the next installment, the amount overdue (unpaid at the previous installment) and the total.

Upcoming charges - This section shows the charges that are due at the next repayment schedule.

Recent Account Activity - As the name suggests, this section shows all recent activity by the center.

 

 4. Click Apply Payment. This leads to a screen similar to the following:

 

Date of transaction - This records the date of the transaction. By default, it is set to the current date.

Amount - This is amount of fee that is being repaid.

Mode of payment - This is the mode in which repayment is made. Typical modes include Cash, Voucher, Cheque and MPESA.

Receipt ID - If a receipt ID is used, it is entered here.

Receipt Date - The receipt date, if a receipt was used, is entered here.

5. Enter the amount of  fee repaid. When payment is made, it is applied in the following order: all overdue charges are applied first followed by one-time fee followed by recurring fee.

6. System validations and other notes:  When an amount is entered, the system performs the following validations.

          So, when a fee payment is made all overdue charges are repaid first. The remaining balance is adjusted against the one-time fee. If some balance still remains, it is adjusted against the number of recurring meetings for which the fee can be repaid. 

Example: If overdue charges = 5, one-time fee = 10 and recurring fee = 2 for a period of 5 installments. Suppose the client makes a repayment of 19, then the amount is adjusted in the following manner.

For more scenarios and examples, please look up documentation available here.

7. Click Review Transaction and if you are satisfied with the updates, click Submit. Else, click the Edit button and modify the transaction details.


Early fee repayment at the Group Level 

When a payment is made at the group level, the payment applies only to fees. To make an early fee repayment at the group level, select the group for which the fee needs to be collected. There are two ways you can do this:

1. As mentioned in the section "Early repayment at the Center Level", in any search box enter the name of the group and click Search. The group(s) matching the search string provided are displayed. Select the required group.

2. Alternately, if you know the center to which the particular group belongs, select the center as described in the previous section. A screen like this will be displayed, with the list of groups assigned to the Center.

Select the required group. The rest of the procedure is the same as described for the Center. Follow steps 3-5 outlined in the previous section "Early fee repayment at the Center Level".

The validations performed at the group level are also similar to that at the center level.

Early fee repayment at the Client Level 

This is very similar to what has been outlined in the above two sections. The client can either be located through a search or by selecting the group to which the client belongs and then selecting the client from that group. In the case of the latter, a screen similar to the following is displayed. The client can then be selected from the list of clients assigned.

 

After selecting the client, follow steps 2-5 outlined above for the remaining process of applying an early fee  repayment at the client level.

The validations performed are similar to that at the center level.

Note: In case a particular client has both penalty and fee due, then the repayment is applied in the following order: penalty is repaid first and if there is excess balance, the fee is repaid.

Early fee repayment through Collection Sheet Data: 

The collection sheet is set up to make your collections easy. After you type in the information for the branch, loan officer, date and mode of payment, you see a form that already includes all payments and deposits that are expected on that date. 

As already mentioned, collection sheet entry cannot be used to make early repayment of fee for a meeting which has not occurred yet. It can only be used to make payment on the day of the meeting or back-dated payments before the next meeting date.

If unfamiliar with using Collection Sheet Entry, please visit the How to enter collection sheet data section of the User Manual.  

To access the collection sheet entry page, click Clients and Accounts > Enter Collection Sheet Data and a screen similar to the following will be displayed:mifoscollsheet1.png

  • Once you've clicked through Continue, a screen appears summarizing all the accounts at this branch whose collections fall on the day you specified. It might look like the following: mifoscollsheet2amifoscollsheet2b
  • The relevant fields for applying fees will be in the following columns:
    • To enter the early fee repayment for a particular client/ group/ center, enter the respective fee amount against that client/ group/ center under the A/C collections column. This field is pre-populated with the list of charges/ fee assessed against the client/ center/ group. Enter the fee amount repaid by the client. A validation is performed by the system to make sure the amount entered is not greater than the fees due.
    • To enter penalty for withdrawal against a savings account at the client level, enter the required penalty amount against the client in the A/C collections column. The field is pre-populated with the required penalty amount.
    • Note: Loan fees (which don't have the early repayment capability) will show up under Due/Collections containing the short names of each loan and/or savings product appear.

To understand the capability of the new early repayment of fees features, let's revisit our original example.  Assume you have a client whose monthly meeting date is Dec 5.  On Dec 5 (the day of the meeting) you would like to assess a client fee of 10. You manually apply the fee to the client. In the Collection Sheet Entry page for Dec 5, this fee of 10 will show up under the A/C collections column.

Prior to the early repayment of fees functionality, after applying the fee manually to the client on Dec 5, this would not show up on the Collection Sheet Entry page until the next meeting date of Jan 5. 

However, in case of collection sheet entry, only payments on the meeting date or backdated payments before the meeting date is allowed.

Recurring fee payment for a meeting date which has not occurred yet is not allowed. Only backdated recurring fee for an already elapsed period or recurring fee for the current meeting date is allowed. 

So, in the case of repayment through CSE, when a fee payment is made, all overdue charges are repaid first. The remaining balance is adjusted against the one-time fee, provided the repayment date is for a period already elapsed or if repayment is scheduled for the current meeting date. Recurring fee for future meeting dates are not accepted by the system. 

Example

: If overdue charges = 5, one-time fee = 10 repayable on the first installment meeting and recurring fee = 2 for a period of 5 installments. Suppose the client makes a repayment of 19 on the meeting date of the first installment, then the amount is adjusted in the following manner.

For more scenarios and examples, please look up documentation available here.

When you have typed all collection data, click Preview to review your work. All values that you changed from their expected amount appear in red.

7. If you need to make changes, click Edit Data, make the changes, and click Preview again. 

8. When you are satisfied with the collection data, click Submit.

How to work with funds

A certain number of fund codes are included in Mifos. You can associate these codes with specific named funds (such as funds made available by donors) that you use for loans and other services.

How to view existing funds

  1. Click Admin > View Funds.
  2. A list of funds and their codes appears. It might look like this: mifosfundsview.png

How to define funds

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can define a new fund and assign it a fund code. This fund is then available when you create a loan product. You can also assign a new fund to a loan account after it has been created.

  1. Click Admin > Define New Fund. A screen like this appears:mifosdefinefund.png
  2. Type the name of the fund.
  3. In the list of fund codes, click the appropriate code.
  4. Click Preview to review the details of the fund. If you want to change any details, click Edit Fund Information, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  5. When you are satisfied with the fund details, click Submit.

How to edit fund names

  1. From the Admin > View Funds screen, click the Edit button for the fund you want to change.
  2. In the Name box, type the new name for this fund. (You may not change the code for this fund.)
  3. When you have made changes, click Preview to review your changes.
  4. If you want to make further changes, click Edit Fund Information, make those changes, and click Preview again. 
  5. When you are satisfied with the changes to the fund, click Submit.

How to work with user checklists

Checklists are lists of things that should be done before an action is completed.

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can set up checklists that your users will see every time they start an action, such as approving a loan. The checklist serves as a reminder to the user to see that all processes are completed. Checklists are defined by the head office and associated with certain states of customer records or accounts.

For example, if the head office defines a checklist for the state “Pending approval” of a loan account, every time a user attempts to change the state of a loan account to “Pending Approval” (no matter what the state of the loan application was up to this point), the checklist appears.

The user can then go through the list and make sure that all items on the checklist have been satisfied. Each state for clients, groups, and products can only have one checklist attached.

Note: You can change an existing checklist, but you may not delete it.

How to define a checklist

  1. Click Admin > Define New Checklist. (You can also click Admin > View Checklists and click the Define a New Checklist from that screen.). The following screen appears.

    mifosdefinechecklist.png
  2. Enter information about the checklist using the descriptions in the following table:
     Field name
     Description Example
     Name
     Type a unique name for the checklist
     Chk Delete Member
     Type Click the type of checklist you want to create from the list of values. The list includes: Center, Group, Client, Loan, Savings.
     Client
     Displayed When Moving Status To
    Select the status that the checklist will be displayed for, if that status is attached to the type above.
    For example, if the checklist type is Clients and the status is Pending Approval, the checklist is displayed whenever any client record status is changed to Pending Approval.

     Pending Approval
     Items Type the text for the checklist item and click Add>> to include the item in the checklist below the item field. The text can accept a maximum of 250 characters. The checklist can have any number of check items defined for it.
    All the listed check items will be considered mandatory and will have to be checked before the status change can be accepted by the system.

     The member has been registered
     Remove Selected
    To remove a checklist item, click the item and click Remove Selected.  


     

  3. When you have finished typing all the items in the checklist, click Preview to review the list.
  4. If you want to change anything in the checklist, click Edit Checklist Information, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  5. When you are satisfied with the checklist, click Submit. (or click Cancel if you decide not to create a checklist at this time)

How to view existing checklists

  1. Click Admin > View Checklists.
    If any checklists are defined, they appear, divided by type. The screen might look like this:

    mifosviewchecklist

  2. To see the details of a checklist, click the link for that checklist.

How to change a checklist

From the Admin > View Checklists screen, click the link for a checklist, and then click Edit Checklist Information. Follow the instructions above to make and save changes.

How to work with holidays

The repayment schedules that you set up can be interrupted by holidays. If you have the appropriate permissions, you can add holidays for your organization and set the rules for when repayments ordinarily due on that due will actually be due.

Note: You may not delete a holiday once you have added it.

How to define holidays

  1. Click Admin > Define New Holiday.

    The following screen appears.


    The Mifos Add Holiday screen.

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:
    Field Description Example
    Holiday name The name of the holiday Tet
    From Date The first day of the holiday 04-08-2010
    To Date The last day of the holiday 05-08-2010
    Repayment Rule

    If repayments are due during the holiday, how to calculate when they are due afterward. Choices are:

    • Same Day: no change to repayment schedule
    • Next Meeting/Repayment: payment due that falls on this holiday is now due at the next scheduled repayment date
    • Next Working day: payment is now due on the next working day
    Next Meeting/Repayment
  3. When you have specified holiday details, click Preview to review them.
  4. If you want to change details of the holiday, click Edit Holiday, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  5. When you are satisfied with the details of the holiday, click Submit. (If you decide not to create a new holiday at this time, click Cancel.)

How to view existing holidays

Click Admin > View Holidays. From here, you can click Add a New Holiday if you want to create a new one; follow the instructions above.

How to define accepted payment types

For all kinds of payments (fees from clients/groups/centers, loan disbursements/repayments, and savings withdrawal/deposits), you can specify what forms of payments you will accept. By default, Mifos puts cash, cheque, and voucher as accepted choices. You could specify additional payment types to choose from as well (click Admin > Define Lookup Options to do this). Once you have defined them as lookup options, you can decide which ones are accepted at present, and you can change these choices at any time.

  1. Click Admin > Define Accepted Payment Types.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosdefinepayment.png
  2. The payment types that show in the right box are the ones accepted, and the ones in the left box are not accepted. Click a payment type and use the Add>> and <<Remove buttons to move that type from one box to another.
  3. When you are satisfied with any changes you have made, click Submit.

How to view organizational settings

It can be helpful to see all of the settings for your organization on one screen. If you click Admin > View Organizational Settings, you will see a screen something like this:

mifosorgsetting

These are all the settings you specified during the configuration process. To change them, return to the configuration guide and follow instructions.

How to set rules for data display

How to define and change labels

When you or an administrator configured Mifos, you chose the language that the software uses for its display. All the labels for fields, boxes, commands, etc., are in that language. In addition, at any time you can change some of these labels to terms that are more familiar to your users and clients. For example, you might call a Subregion a Division, or you might call a Center a Centre. You might also define labels for office hierarchies and the names of account statuses. If you change a label, every instance of that label in Mifos is also changed.

Follow these instructions to change labels:

  1. Click Admin > Define Labels.
    A screen appears showing all current labels, with a box to type any changes. The whole screen (in two pieces) looks like this:
    mifoslabel1.png
    mifoslabel2.png
  2. For any labels you want to change, type the new label in the box to the right.
  3. When you are satisfied with the changes, click Submit. (If you decide not to change any labels at this time, click Cancel.)

How to define and change lookup options

In many procedures within Mifos, you choose among items in a list. These are called "lookup options." For some of these lists, you can control the items that appear there to fit your local circumstances, either by adding new options or editing the existing ones. For example, in the list of salutations, you might want to add "Sri" or "Rev."

Note: You can add new lookup options or edit the ones that appear there, but you may not delete any.

Follow these instructions to change lookup options:

  1. Click Admin > Define Lookup Options.
    A screen appears showing all current lookup options for lists that you can change. This screen (in two pieces) looks like this:
    mifoslookup1.png
    mifoslookup2.png
  2. To add a lookup option, click that option and click Add.
    A screen appears with an empty box for that option.
  3. Type the new option and click Submit.
  4. To edit a lookup option, click that option and click Edit.
    A screen appears with a box showing the current option.
  5. Type the changed option and click Submit.

How to specify that fields be mandatory and/or hidden

For many of the fields in Mifos, if you have the appropriate permissions, you can decide whether a field is mandatory (meaning that the procedure cannot be completed until this field is filled in) and also whether a field is hidden. For example, if it is essential to fill in the purpose of a loan before that loan is granted, you can mark the "Purpose of loan" field as mandatory. If a field such as "Address 3" is unnecessary, you can mark it as hidden.

Note: Before marking a field as hidden, be sure that you will not need it later. MFI records that were created when the field was hidden may be different from those that are created later when the field is visible, and this can create problems.

Follow these instructions to make the specifications:

  1. Click Admin > Define Mandatory/Hidden Fields.
    A screen appears showing all fields for which you can make these specifications. These are grouped:
  1. Check and uncheck the boxes according to your preferences.
  2. When you are satisfied with your specifications, click Submit. (If you decide not to change the status of any fields at this time, click Cancel.)

Note: If you make a field mandatory, it will always have an asterisk (*) next to it.

How to define and change additional fields

You may find that you need additional fields in Mifos; for example, you might need to gather additional information about a client’s business. If you have appropriate permissions, you can create new fields and give them certain characteristics, such as making those fields mandatory or assigning them default values. Not all properties of fields can be changed.

TIP: Consider adding additional fields if you want the information to be collected as part of the regular MFI workflow. For example, perhaps you want the client’s mother’s name to be included in any account application. If the information does not need to be collected each time, but you would like to collect it periodically and save it for comparison (such as annual income), consider putting this information in a survey. See "How to create a survey" for details.

Note: You can add new fields or edit the ones that appear there, but you may not delete any.

Follow these instructions to create new fields:

  1. Click Admin > Define Additional Fields.
  2. The following screen appears:
    mifosaddfield.png
  3. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Category

The category that fits this field.

Label

The label that will appear for this field in Mifos.

Mandatory

If you want this field to be mandatory (meaning that the procedure cannot be completed without filling in this field), check this box.

Data Type

Numeric or Text. If you click Numeric and the user types text in this field, they will see an error message.

Default Value

The value that will appear if the field if the user does not alter it.

 

  1. When you have made all specifications, click Preview.
  2. Review the specifications; if you want to change them, click Edit Additional Field, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  3. When you are satisfied with all the specifications, click Submit. (If you decide not to add an additional field at this time, click Cancel.)

You can also change these additional fields later. Click Admin > View Additional Fields, click the group in which this field appears, and click Edit for the specific field you want to change. Follow the instructions above to make your changes.

 

 

How to Work with Batch Jobs

Batch jobs (also known as cron jobs on Unix-based systems) are a series of back-end jobs executed on a computer. Mifos currently has 9 batch processes which are scheduled to run nightly.

At any point, you can view the list of batch jobs scheduled to run along with other details specific to each job. Click Admin>>Batch Jobs (under System Administration) to view the following details for each batch job 

 


How to Suspend Scheduled Batch Jobs

The current status of the scheduler is displayed under the Batch Jobs Information section on the Batch Jobs page. This status can be either "Active" or "Standby". If the scheduler status is Active, it indicates that all batch jobs are running/ will run as per the specified schedule.

 

The whole batch-job scheduler can be put in standby mode by using the Suspend option. Clicking on the suspend button will ensure all scheduled batch runs are suspended. The scheduler status will now show "Standby".

   

 

How to Manually Execute Specific Batch Jobs to Run (and check status) 

First select the batch jobs that need to be manually executed.  This selection is done by clicking the respective check boxes (to the left of each job). After the required jobs are selected, click on 'Run Selected Tasks'. This will execute the selected batch jobs. 

  

On click of 'Run Selected Tasks', the list of tasks selected for manual execution will be displayed under the section 'Tasks sent for execution'.


 To verify that all the selected tasks have indeed been sent for execution, check the field 'Previous Run Status' for these tasks. The Previous Run Status for these tasks should read 'Started'.


 

How to set product rules and attributes

How to define new product categories

Most MFIs have savings products and loan products. In addition, you can define subcategories of these products. These can be useful in your reports, if you want to compare the repayment rates and profitability of different kinds of loans. For example, you might want to create an "Income-generating loan" category that is used to report on loans for business. You could create different products within this category such as "Farm loan" and "Food kiosk loan." A second category, "Housing loan," might contain different products for "Standard housing loans" and "Tsunami rebuilding loans." Then you could compare the categories to see which were the most popular and the most profitable.

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can create new categories. Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Define New Category.
    The following screen appears:

    mifosnewcategory.png
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Example

Product Type

Savings or Loan. These hierarchies are separate, so a loan product cannot be assigned to a savings product category, and vice versa.

Loan

Category Name

This name will be used to refer to the category when new products are defined, and also in the reports where data are summarized or filtered by the product category.

3-year education loan

Category Description

Type a description that will help system users decide who to provide the product for.

3-year education loan

 

  1. When you are finished, click Preview to review your work.
  2. If you want to make changes to the category, click Edit Category Information, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  3. When you are satisfied with the details of the category, click Submit. (If you decide not to add a new category at this time, click Cancel.)

How to view and change existing product categories

  1. Click Admin > View Product Categories.
    A list of existing categories appears. It might look like this:

    mifosviewcategory.png
  2. To see the details on any category, click its link. From the screen that appears, you can click Edit Category Information to make changes, as in the procedure above.

How to view and change the lateness definition and the dormancy definition

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can decide how long to wait after nonpayment of a loan before Mifos automatically changes a loan account's status from Active in Good Standing to Active—Bad Standing. The default Lateness value is 10 days, and you can change this value.

Mifos moves the account back to the Active in Good Standing status when the total amount overdue has been paid (the complete principal overdue + interest overdue + fee overdue + penalty overdue).

You can also decide how long, after a period of no deposits or withdrawals (dormancy) in a savings account, to mark the account as On Hold. The default value is 30 days.

You can change these definitions again at any time.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin >View Lateness/Dormancy Definitions.
    A screen like the following appears:

    mifoslateness

  2. In the Loan box, type the number of days to wait after nonpayment before the account is marked Active—Bad Standing.
  3. In the Savings box, type the number of days to wait after no activity before it is marked On Hold.
  4. When you are satisfied with the changes, click Submit. (If you decide not to make any changes to the definition at this time, click Cancel.)

How to define new loan products

In Mifos, a loan product is a type of loan account. A single MFI typically has several loan products--for example, a 4-year housing loan, and a 2-year educational loan. The product provides the terms and definitions of these different programs to the Mifos system. Loan products are available to the whole MFI.

If a customer wants to borrow a 2-year educational loan, the MFI uses the 2-year educational loan to create an account for the customer. The loan account is used to track transactions related to the loan, which include interest, repayment, and any applicable charges. The loan account is a specific instance of a loan product, with a specified interest rate and an account number, and it is owned by a specified MFI customer.

For example, Rashmi and Shalini might both have loans for income-generating businesses. They are separate accounts (they have different account numbers and different balances), but both loans are instances of the same product (they were authorized by loan officers under the same program and share common traits, such as the way that the proceeds are used, the way interest is calculated, and the general ledger entries they are posted to). Although the terms of a loan account are governed by the product definition, the loan officer may have some flexibility to change interest rates and other attributes. Therefore, many of the properties of a loan product define the minimum and maximum values that the user may choose when an account of that type is opened.

The purpose of a product is as follows:

Note: If you want to see the loan products that have already been created before you make a new one, click Admin > View Loan Products and click any of the products displayed on that screen.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Define New Loan Product.
    A screen appears with all the specifications for the product. The first part of the screen looks like this:

    mifosloanproduct1
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field name

Description

Product instance name

The full name of the loan product being defined.

Short name

An abbreviated version of the name, used in reports or menus where space is limited, such as Collection Sheets.

Description

A description of the loan product: its purpose, eligible recipients, or other information that will help an employee determine whether it is appropriate for a particular client.

Product Category

A selection from the list of all the active loan product categories. Products not assigned to any category are assigned to the Other category.

Start Date

The full date after which loans of this type may be issued.

End Date

The last date on which loans of this type may be issued.

Applicable For

Click whether this is a loan given to groups or individual clients.

Include in Loan Cycle Counter

A Yes/No choice for whether these loans count towards the experience level of this borrower.  The default option is Yes.  

 An additional field titled 'Can waive interest on Prepay Loan' is displayed. Information on its significance and how the feature can be enabled is discussed in the next section.

Waive Interest on Loan Repayment 

Mifos provides MFIs the option to waive interest during repayment of certain Loan products. In some cases, this is used to reward clients who repay loans earlier than the required date. When MFIs exercise this option to waive interest for a certain product type, clients repaying loans of that specific product type are not charged interest for the current active instalment. Otherwise, when a client repays a loan, interest is captured for the current active instalment as well.

If the option to waive interest is not enabled, the loan amount due is calculated as follows:

Amount due =

        All installments unpaid + Current installment due + Future Principle amounts only.  

This feature can be specified for new as well as existing loan products.

To enable feature for new loan products: Follow steps detailed in above section to define new loan product.  To select the 'Can Waive Interest on Prepay Loan' option for the loan in question, mark the corresponding check box as shown below.


 By default, this feature is not enabled.

To enable feature for existing loan products: Select the existing loan product for which the interest needs to be waived. To do this, follow these instructions:

1. Click Admin> View Loan Products (under Manage Products> Manage Loan Products)

The following screen with the list of loan products created will be displayed.


2. Click on the loan product that you'd like to modify. On click of that product, the product details are visible.


3. Click Edit Loans Product Information (top right). All the fields are visible in edit mode. Mark the Can waive interest on Prepay Loan option as shown below.


4. Click the Preview button to check if the changes have been made. The Can Waive Interest on Prepay Loan field should now read Yes


5. Click Submit

 

The next section deals with the amount of the loan. If you have multiple currencies configured for loan products, you can select the currency that the loan product applies to.

 

mifosloanproduct2

Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Example

Calculate Loan Amount

The way the loan should be calculated:

Same for All Loans: The loan amount does not vary, and the loan history is not taken into consideration.

By Last Loan Amount: The loan amount depends on the amount of the last loan this client or group received. After a successfully repaid loan, the amount of money available for the next loan increases.

By Loan cycle: The loan amount depends on the experience of the borrower (prompt or late repayment, for example) with previous loans. The larger the number of successfully repaid loan cycles, the larger the amount of money available for the loan.

Same for All Loans

Min Amount

The smallest amount that a loan of this type may be granted for.

50

Max Amount

The largest amount that a loan of this type may be granted for.

300

Default (Standard) Amount

The typical amount that a loan of this type may be granted for.

150

 

The next section deals with interest rates. The loan product sets up a range of interest rates; a manager can specify a rate within this range for an individual loan instance.

mifosloanproduct3

Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field name

Description

Interest Rate Type

The formula used to calculate interest due, based on the amount of money borrowed.  For example, the Flat rate sets the interest due as the product of the principal times the interest rate times the full term of the loan. The amount can be paid all at once or distributed throughout the loan period. 

The Declining Balance rate charges interest on the outstanding loan at the end of the instalment period.  As the loan amount decreases, the interest due decreases as well.

The Declining Balance—Equal Principal Instalment is like the Declining Balance type, except that the borrower pays equal instalments of principal for the duration of the loan, and the interest is calculated on principal that has not been paid for the loan period.

The Declining Balance - Interest Recalculation method calculates interest based on early or late and/or partial or excess payments. Installments are equal throughout the loan with the recalculation factored into the allocation between principal and interest for each installment.  

Max interest rate

The maximum interest rate that can be charged with this loan product.

Min interest rate

The minimum interest rate that can be charged with this loan product.

Default interest rate

The standard interest rate that is charged with this loan product, if you do not make any changes to the rate.

The next section deals with the installments of the loan. 

 mifosloanproduct4

Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Loan product attribute

Description

Example

Frequency of Instalments

The frequency the payments are made to the MFI. In the Recur Every Box, type the number of weeks or months in each instalment.

Every week

Calculate # (number) of Installments

Click one of three choices:
Same for all loans : The number of installments does not vary.

By last loan amount : The number of instalments depends on the amount of the last loan this client or group received.

By loan cycle : The number of installments depends on the experience of the borrower (prompt or late repayment, for example) with previous loans.

 

Max # of Installments

The maximum number of installments in which the loan can be repaid.

20

Min # of Installments

The minimum number of installments in which the loan can be repaid.

10

Default # of installments

The default value entered in the number of installments when defining a loan account. The user will be able to change the installments value when defining a loan account based on this loan product.

15

Grace Period Type

An initial grace period is the time between the disbursal date of a loan and the collection of the first regular payment.

Click one of the following choices for the type of extra time allowed for repayment:

None : No extra time is allowed.

Grace on All Repayments : The client is not required to start repayment until the grace period ends, and interest is not charged during this period. That is, extra time is given for both principal and interest.

Principal-only Grace : Extra time is allowed only for the principal, not the interest of the loan. The client must make regular interest payments but is not required to make payments against the principal during the grace period.

Grace on All Repayments

Grace Period duration (instalments)

This is the number of initial due dates at the beginning of the loan when no payment is due.  The first payment would be due on the next instalment date.

3 (first payment due at period 4)

How to create Variable Installment Loans

Overview: Often times, MFIs face the need to tailor loan disbursement, loan repayment recovery and loan maturity to suit the cash flow patterns of the borrower. This is especially true of products like agricultural loans where clients repayments can be quite volatile. The volatility arises due to increased vulnerability of the agricultural industry to factors like inclement weather. Consequently returns in such sectors are seasonal, unpredictable and often lower than those of the regular commercial enterprises for which MFIs disburse loans. This necessitates the need for MFIs to have customized loans products, which allow for more flexibility with the installment schedule. 

The Variable Installment Loans feature of Mifos enables MFIs to accommodate this flexibility by specifying different gaps between installments, as explained in the How to Manage Variable Loan Installments section.    

The next section deals with any fees that are attached to this loan.

mifosloanproduct5

  1. In the box on the left are all fees currently defined in Mifos. The box on the right contains any fees applied to this loan. Click any fee on the left and then click Add>> to move it to the box on the right. You can add more than one fee to this loan product. To remove the fee from this loan product, click it in the box on the right and then click <<Remove.

The next section deals with accounting details for the loan product. These details are sent to an external accounting application to keep track of the sources of funds and general ledger processing (interest/principal).

mifosloanproduct6

  1. In the box on the left are all funds currently defined in Mifos. The box on the right contains any funds used as sources for this loan. Click any fund on the left and then click Add>> to move it to the box on the right. You can add more than one fund to this loan product. To remove the fund from this loan product, click it in the box on the right and then click <<Remove.
  2. The Product GL Code refers to general ledger codes set at the time of configuration. Every transaction has a corresponding GL code for further financial tracking. To apply a GL code to the interest for this loan product, click a code in the Interest list. To apply a GL code to the principal for this loan product, click a code in the Principal list.
  3. When you are done setting up the loan product, click Preview to review your work.
  4. If you want to make changes. click Edit Loan Product Information and make changes.
  5. When you are satisfied with all the details, click Submit. (If you decide not to create a loan product at this time, click Cancel.)

How to use multicurrency features

If Mifos has been set up in configuration to handle more than one currency, then when you define a new loan product, you can keep the default currency or specify an additional currency. The same choice appears when you define new fees. All loan accounts created from a loan product use the currency defined for that product.

When you create the new loan product, a currency field appears in the Loan Product Details section, as shown here:

2mifosmulticurrency

All fees associated with that loan product must also use the same currency.

When the user chooses a loan product to create a loan account from, the currency for that product appears in the definition of the product.

  

 

How to manage the product mix

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can decide which types of products a given client or group can mix. In this way, you can restrict clients from having active loans or savings accounts of different products at the same time.

For example, if you have three different loan products (A, B, and C), you can make a rule that if a client has loan A, they can have loan B but not C.

To establish the mix of loans and savings products that you want to allow, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Define Products Mix.
    The following screen appears: mifosproductmix.png

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Product Type

Savings or Loan

Product Name

Click a loan product or savings account product; you can then restrict the types of other loans or savings accounts that an individual client or group can have in addition to this product.

Remove Not Allowed Products

All other products in this category are by default in the allowed section (to the right). To mark a product so that it cannot be used by a client/group at the same time as the Product Name you chose, click that product and click the <<Remove button.

The product moves to the box on the left.

To cancel the restriction and allow a product to be offered at the same time as the original Product name you chose, click that product and click Add>>.

That product moves to the box on the right.

  1. When you have made your choices, click Preview to review your work.

  2. A list of products that are allowed appears, follow by the list of products that are not allowed in combination with the product you originally chose.

  3. To change this product mix, click Edit Product Mix Information, make changes, and click Preview again.

  4. When you are satisfied with the product mix, click Submit. (If you decide not to make any changes to the product mix at this time, click Cancel.)

To change an existing product mix, click Admin > View Product Mix, click the link for the product you want to change, and click Edit Product Mix Information. Make your changes, and click Submit when you are done.

How to view system information and manage a Mifos shutdown

How to view system information

At any point, you can check the basic information about the system you are using to run Mifos. Click Admin > View System Information to see items such as the following:

How to manage a Mifos shutdown

When you need to shut down Mifos (for upgrades or maintenance, for example), you must give users a chance to finish their work first, and you must prevent any new users from logging on. For that reason, the process includes ways to see how many users are currently working and to notify them of the shutdown.

To manage the shutdown of Mifos, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Shutdown.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosshutdown

    The Shutdown Status shows whether a shutdown of the system is planned or not. The Active Sessions section shows you the names of all system users logged on, their branch office, and the action or page they are involved in in Mifos. When you start a shutdown of Mifos, all active sessions will see a notification at the top of their screens indicating that a shutdown is imminent.
  2. To be sure that you are seeing all active sessions of Mifos, click the Refresh button.
  3. In the Schedule In box, type the number of seconds' delay until Mifos shuts down.
  4. Click Start Shutdown.
    In the specified number of seconds, all active sessions of Mifos will have to complete their work, and no new sessions can be started. If you need to cancel this operation, click Cancel Shutdown. Active users will then be able to continue their sessions, and new users can log on.

Now that all sessions have shut down, the Mifos administrator can stop the entire Mifos application.

How to define and change savings products

Before you can create individual savings accounts, you must define a savings product. All savings accounts are created from these products and inherit their characteristics.

Savings products can be set up for mandatory or voluntary deposits. If the account holder does not make any deposits to or withdrawals from the account in a certain period of time (the default is 30 days), the account becomes dormant.

 Note: If you want to see the savings products that have already been created before making a new one, click Admin > View Savings Products and click any of the products displayed on that screen. From that display, you can make changes to the existing savings products.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Define New Savings Product.
    A screen appears with all the specifications for the product. The first part of the screen looks like this:

    Imifossavingproduct1

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field name

Description

Product instance name

The full name of the savings product being defined.

Short name

An abbreviated version of the name, used in reports or menus where space is limited such as the Collection Sheet.

Description

A description of the savings product: its purpose, eligible recipients, or other information that will help an employee determine whether it is appropriate for a particular client.

Product Category

A selection from the list of all the active savings product categories.

Start Date

The full date after which products of this type may be issued.

End Date

The last date on which products of this type may be issued.

Applicable For

Click whether this is an account given only to centers, groups, or individual clients.

The next section sets rules for deposits and withdrawals.

mifossavingproduct2

3 Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Savings product attribute

Description

Example

Type of deposits

Click whether deposits are voluntary or mandatory.  A voluntary deposit means that the client(s) or group(s) assigned this product are not obliged to save; a mandatory product means that savings deposits must be made as defined in the product.

Mandatory

Recommended amount for deposit

Type the recommended value of each deposit.  If the type of deposit is mandatory and the savings account requires a monthly deposit, for example, the client(s) or group(s) must make a savings deposit on a monthly basis.

1000

Recommended Amount Applies to

If you chose Groups in the Applicable For list above, you can choose who the recommended savings amount applies to: the individual or the group. That is, the group could be responsible for the deposit amount, dividing it up among the clients in the group, or each client could be individually responsible for the deposit amount.

In a center savings account, the recommended amount always applies to the client.

Complete Group

Max amount per withdrawal

Type the largest amount of money that can be withdrawn from the account at any given time.

200

The next section deals with setting interest.

mifossavingproduct3

4 Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Savings product attribute

Description

Example

Interest rate

Type the applicable interest rate.


Balance Used for Interest Rate Calculation

Select the type of balance that will be used for interest: minimum balance or average balance. Compound interest is the only method supported as a basis of calculating interest. If you change this setting, the change is reflected in the open accounts as soon as the change is detected by Mifos.

If the attribute is modified, the interest installments should be recalculated.

Minimum Balance

Time Period for Interest Rate Calculation

Enter the time period when the interest can be calculated. 1 month means that the interest rate will be calculated at the end of every month.

Computation:  A = P(1+r/n)

Where:
P = principal amount (initial amount)
r = annual rate of interest (as a decimal)
A = amount of money accumulated including interest
n = number of times the interest is compounded per year

Frequency of Interest Posting to Accounts

Type the frequency of posting into the accounts (for example, interest is posted to the savings accounts once a month). Changes to this account will affect future transactions only.

The frequency of deposit is inherited from the client's meeting frequency.

1 month = every month.  Posting is always at the end of the period defined.  

Min balance required for interest rate calculation

Enter the smallest balance that the account must have before it can accrue interest. If the amount is lower than the amount entered here, interest will not be applied.

10

  1. In the Accounting section, if you have general ledger codes for deposits and interest, click those codes in each list.
  2. When you have made all choices for this savings product, click Preview.
  3. Review your choices. If you want to make changes, click Edit Savings Product Information, make changes, and click Submit. (If you decide not to create a savings product at this time, click Cancel.)

How to change savings products

If you change savings products that are already in use, the changes affect all future savings accounts created from those products, but they do not affect savings accounts that were created before. Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > View Savings Products.
    A screen appears like the following:

    2mifosviewsavings

  2. Click the link for the product you want to change.
  3. In the screen that appears, review the terms of the product.
  4. Click Edit Savings Product Information and proceed as in the procedure above, clicking Submit when you are done.

Centers, groups, and clients: Overview

Below the level of the branch, your MFI can have centers and groups to organize and empower clients. Usually, a single Loan Officer works in a center and has responsibility for several groups. If there is a center, it determines the meeting schedule (if there is one) for all the groups contained in it. (Otherwise, the branch does this.)

Groups include clients; they can sometimes act as a unit, as in the case where a group has a savings or loan account, and all clients in that group contribute to it.

Clients can act on their own, with individual savings and loan accounts, or they can act as part of a group.


How to create a new center

A center is a collection of many groups. It is associated with a branch office. A center can have a savings account, like a group or a client. Groups or clients associated with that center can make deposits to and withdrawals from such an account, and the center can also pay fees for accounts.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts > Create New Center.
    A screen appears that might look like this:

    mifosbranchforcenter.png
  2. From the list of branches, click the branch that this center will be associated with.
    A screen appears showing the branch office you chose. The first section might look like this:

    mifoscreatecenter1.png 
  3. Enter information about the center using the descriptions in the following table:
Field name Description Example

Branch selected

The center's parent branch.

Branch 01

Center details

Name

The center's name (make sure that this is unique within the MFI).

Fina Center

Loan officer assigned

The loan officer assigned to the center. Groups associated with this center inherit this value.

Sri Nagesh

Meeting schedule

Click Schedule Meeting to set the number of times meetings are to be held within a time period. Groups associated with this center inherit this value. Click Weeks or Months.

If you click Months, set a meeting for a specific day in each period or a specific day of a specific week in each period. If you click Weeks, type the number of weeks between meetings, and in the list next to it, click the day of the week on which the meeting takes place.

In the Location of Meeting box, type where the meeting is to take place. Click save to save this schedule and return to the previous page.

The 12th day of every third month

or

The 4th Tuesday of every second month

Village store

Collection sheet type

The type of collection sheet used for collecting payment from members belonging to the center.

 

External ID

A unique identifier of the center in another system. This will be used to link the center in Mifos system and center's details in another system.

BRA-001

MFI Joining Date

Date when the center was first approved and saved in the system.

01/02/2002

 

The next section is for the address of the center.

mifoscreatecenter2.png

Field name Description Example

Center Address

Address lines 1 -3, city, State, country, Postal code and Telephone

 

#224, Wheeler Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA, 560090

91 80 23456787

 

The next sections are for additional information and any fees.

mifoscreatecenter3.png

 

Field name Description Example

Additional information

Customized fields

Fields that are configured by the system administrator to allow the MFI to capture more information.

 

Administrative set fees

Application or other fee (if charged)

Fee charged to be a member, process membership application, etc.  These fees are set as default when defined.

2.50

Periodicity

The frequency the fee is applicable in a given period.

One-time fee

Check to remove

A user can check this box if they wish to remove the default fee. An unchecked check box means that the fee is applicable.

 

Apply additional fees

Fee Type, Amount

Additional fee type and amounts defined by the MFI.

 

 

  1. When you have made all specifications, click Preview and review your work.
  2. If you want to make changes, click Edit Center Information, make the changes, and click Preview again.
  3. When you are satisfied with your changes, click Submit. (If you decide not to create a center at this time, click Cancel.)
  4. A screen appears confirming the creation of the center and providing a system ID number. You can use this number to find details on the center (including its performance data) quickly. The screen might look like this:


    mifoscreatecenter4.png

 

The center details page might look like this:

mifoscenterdetails.png

From the center dashboard, you can do the following:

Check the appropriate chapters of this manual for information on each of these.

How to create a new group

A group is a collection of clients that is assigned to a center or a branch (depending on the MFI hierarchy). It inherits the loan officer and the meeting schedule (if any) from its parent center or branch.

The group can act to borrow money and hold a savings account, as if it were an individual client. It can also have an account for group fees (for membership, loan applications, and so forth). A group can have positions such as President and Treasurer that are assigned to group members.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts > Create New Group.
    The following screen appears:

    mifoscreategroup1

  2. In the Center Name box, type the name of the center or branch that this group will belong to, and click Search.
    All centers with that name appear in a list.

  3. Click the correct center.
    A screen appears for group details, starting with this section:

    mifoscreategroup2

  4. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field Name

Description

Example

Group Name

The name of the group, which must be unique.

Hope and Effort Group

Formed By

Type the name of the person who facilitated the formation of the group.

Venkatesh V

Trained

Check the correct box for if a group has been trained or not.

Yes

Trained On

The date the training was administered.

01/12/2002

External ID

Used to link Mifos group with another system. This value represents the group identifier in another system.

GRP-001



 

The next section is for the address of the group.

mifoscreatecenter2

Field Name

Description

Example

Group address

Address 1-3, City, Stat, Country, Postal Code, Telephone

#154, Wheeler Road, Cooke Town
Bangalore, Karnataka, India - 560045
+91 80 23549876



 

The next section is for additional information and fees.

mifoscreategroup3

Field Name

Description

Example

Administrative set fees

Any applicable fee

Shows the mandatory fee for the group.

3:07

Periodicity

The time frequency during which the fee is applicable.


Check to Remove

Check to disable the fee from being required for the group.


Additional Information

Custom fields 1 – 6

Fields used to capture MFI custom data.


Apply additional fees

Fee type; Amount

Additional fee types amounts defined by the MFI for the group.






 
  1. When you have made all specifications, click Preview to review your work.

  2. If you want to make changes, click Edit Group Information, make changes, and click Preview again.

  3. When you are satisfied with all changes, you can click Submit for Approval or (if you are not ready to submit the group) Save for Later. (If you decide not to create a group at all at this time, click Cancel.)

  4. When the group application is approved, you see a screen like the following:

    mifoscreategroup4

The group details page might look like this:
group_dashboard_small.png


From the group dashboard, you can do the following:

Check the appropriate chapters of this manual for information on each of these.

How to reassign a group to a new center

If it ever becomes necessary, you can reassign a group so that it is now associated with a different center. Follow these instructions:

  1. From the Group Details page of the Group you'd like to re-assign, scroll down to middle of this page and click Edit Center Membership. (If there is no center, and you are reassigning the group to a new branch, click Edit Branch Membership.)
    The Change Center Membership screen appears.

    2mifoschangecenter
  2. Type the name of the center you want this group to belong to and click Search.
  3. The center name appears. Click its link.
  4. Review a summary of your change and click Submit.
    The group is now included on the page for that center.
Note: The meeting time and Loan Officer of the new center is inherited by the group and all its members. Groups cannot be transferred unless all the active loan accounts are closed.

 

How to create a new client

The individual client can have savings accounts and borrow money according to the rules of your MFI. If the client is associated with a group, that client inherits the loan officer, the meeting schedule, and the meeting location of the group.

Follow these instructions to create a client account.

  1. Click Clients & Accounts. In the left navigation panel, click Create New Client.

    The following screen appears:

    mifoscreateclient1.png

  2. In the Group Name box, type the name of the group that this client is assigned to, and click Proceed. A list of groups by that name appears; click the correct one. If the correct group name is not on this list (perhaps you mistyped it?), type the group name again and click Search to try again. When you see the correct group name, click it.
  3. If group membership is not required for your client, click that link to proceed.
    A screen for information about the client appears.

    The first section contains personal information. All fields with an asterisk (*) are required.

mifoscreateclient2.png

  1. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table (note that some fields may not appear or may have different choices, depending on how Mifos is configured for your MFI):

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    Salutation

    Mr, Mrs etc.  In Mifos, the system administrator can define more salutations.

    Mr.

    First Name


    Albert

    Middle Name



    Second Last Name


    Smith

    Last Name


    Anderson

    National ID

    Can be Government ID, or National ID, or Social Security Number. This is not editable after a client enters Active state. Some external IDs might have characters associated with them.

    N-001

    Date of Birth


    Nov-11, 2005

    Gender


    Male

    Marital Status


    Married

    Number of Children

    The total number of children the client has.

    4

    Citizenship


    Kenyan

    Ethnicity


    Arab

    Education Level

    Captures the maximum level of education the client has attained, for example, Graduate

    Graduate

    Activities

    The nature of the client's business

    Self-owned business

    Handicapped

    If this field is present, check whether there is a handicap or not.

    No

    Poverty Status

    If this field is present, click the appropriate status for the client, if known.

    Very poor

    Income

    If this field is present, click the appropriate monthly income for the client, if known.

    200

    Photograph

    User can upload a photo, which will be a part of the client details page. The maximum size allowed is 30KB. Click Choose File, browse your computer for the photograph file, and double-click it so that the filename appears next to the box.

    C:\microfin\photos\smith01.gif

    Spouse/Father Name

    Relationship, First Name, Middle Name and Second Last Name and Last Name

    Names of the spouse or father.

    Jane Smith, Spouse

    The next section is for the address of the group.

    address

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    Address

    Address

    Address 1-3, city, state, country, postal code, Telephone

    P.O Box 2223, Stanford, California, 94305, +1650-271-2450

    The next section is for additional information about the client, if any is required.

    mifoscreateclient3.png

  3. Enter information based on the descriptions in the following table:

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    Additional Information

    Custom Field 1 - 6

    Custom data for the MFI.


    The next section is for MFI-related information.

    mifoscreateclient4.png

  4. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    MFI related information

    Recruited by

    Select the loan officer to be assigned to the client.  This is applicable if you selected to assign the client directly to a branch; otherwise the value is inherited from the group.

    Loan Officer 1

    Meeting Schedule

    Define the meeting schedule. This field appears only if you assign the client directly to the branch; otherwise, the meeting schedule is inherited from the group.  A client can be created without a meeting schedule if there is no need for one.  Such client's name will not appear in the collection sheets.


    External ID

    The client's unique identifier in another system that shares client details with Mifos.

    E003

    Trained

    Has the client been trained?

    Yes

    Trained On

    The date when the client was trained.

    Dec-12, 2005

    The next section is for client fees.

    mifoscreateclient5.png

  5. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    Administrative set fees

    Any fees, if applicable

    Any group or branch fees, such as membership application fees

    8.85

    Periodicity

    The frequency the fee is applicable. Periodicity can be Once, Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Yearly

    One-time fee

    Check to Remove

    Check to remove the application fee.


    Apply additional fees



    Fee Type; Amount

    Mifos allows the definition of three custom fee types. Click the applicable fee type from the list and type the amount of the fee in the Amount box.

    Processing fee, 3.00

    The next section is for savings accounts.

    mifoscreateclient6.png

  6. If you want to create a savings account for this client now, click the name of the savings product from the Savings Name list. You can create up to three savings accounts.
  7. When you have finished, click Preview to review your work.
  8. If you want to make changes, click Edit MFI-related Information and make the changes.
  9. When you are satisfied with all the changes, click Submit for Approval. If you want to submit this client later, click Save for Later; the account goes into a Partial Application state, and you can build a custom report to find all client records in this state. (If you decide not to create this client at all at this time, click Cancel.)

A screen appears that might look like this:

mifoscreateclient7.png

Note the system ID number for this client, so that you can use it to search for details about that client later.

The client details (dashboard) page might look like this:

Client Dashboard

From the client dashboard, you can do the following:

Check the appropriate chapters of this manual for information on each of these.

How to change a meeting schedule for a center

Meeting schedules are set when you create a center. If you ever need to change the schedule, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts
  2. In the Search box, type the center name and click Search. In the list that appears, click the link for the correct center
  3. Click Edit Meeting Schedule
  4. Change the schedule according to the instructions in How to create a center.
  5. Meeting Schedule changes take effect the day after the changes are made.  After changing the meeting schedule, all associated clients and groups with that center will have an updated meeting schedule the next day.  If loan schedules are tied to meeting schedules, loan repayment schedules will also be updated.

How to view and change details for centers, groups, and clients

How to edit details

You can change details about a center, group, or client at any time.

Follow these instructions:

  1. From any search box, type the name of the center, group, or client, and click Search.
    All entities with that name appear; click the correct one.
  2. In the Center/Group/Client Information section, click Edit Center/Group/Client Details.
    The screen that was filled out when the center, group, or client was created appears. For information on what each field means, see "How to create a new center", "How to create a new group" or "How to create a new client".
  3. Make any changes and click Preview.
  4. If you want to make changes, click the edit button, make changes, and click Submit.

How to make notes

In the center, group, or client dashboard (details page), you can record any notes in the Recent Notes section. To see all notes, click See All Notes. Any notes created about the group, centre, or client (in the account status or adjustments section, for example) appear here as well.

To add a note, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Add a Note.
    The following screen appears:
    mifoscenteraddnote

  2. In the Note box, type the note.

  3. Click Preview to review your work. If you want to make changes, click Edit, make changes, and click Submit.
    The note now appears in the Recent Notes section.

How to view the change log

In the center, group, or client dashboard (details page), you can see a record of all changes that have been made. At the bottom of that screen, click View Change Log. It might look like the following screen:

mifosclientchangelog

How to change the status of centers, groups and clients

Overview of status states for centers, groups, and clients

From the details page (dashboard) for centers, groups, and clients, you can change the status from active to inactive, or vice versa. (Clients and groups can have other statuses as well.) The procedure is the same for all three entities. A green square next to the center, group, or client name means that it is active.

How to change the status of a center

The following rules apply when a center becomes inactive:

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts.
  2. In the Search box, type the name of the center and click Search.
  3. In the results box, click the name of the center you want.
    The details page (dashboard) for that center appears.
  4. Click Edit Center Status.
    The Change status box appears. It might look like the following screen:

    2mifoschangestatuscenter
     
  5. Click the button for the new status.
  6. In the Note box, type a note explaining why this status is changing.
  7. Click Preview to review your change.
  8. If you want to make further changes, click Edit Status, make any changes, and click Preview again.

How to change the status of groups and/or clients

The following table shows the various states that a client can be in:

 State  Description
 Partial application
Assigned to the client if the record has been created, but data is incomplete or the user does not want the status to be as “Pending Approval”, status can be marked as “Partial Application”.
 Pending approval
This is an optional state and can be omitted during the initial system setup by the MFI. Record contains all necessary data and is waiting for approval. Before and after this point, there could be some offline processes, which might govern the approval process. These processes can be specific to each MFI and will not impact Mifos functionality.
A record can be saved in this state after the mandatory fields (according to the attributes table) have been filled.
 Active Client has been Approved and is eligible to open a savings account or apply for a loan, or is eligible for other products offered by the MFI.
Every client has to have a loan officer to be active.
 Cancel  A client application can be cancelled due to various reasons:
•    Client can withdraw the application
•    The application was rejected by an Officer of the MFI
•    The client is not eligible, as the client has been Blacklisted
•    A duplicate client record already exists, and thus one record is being cancelled.

 On hold
 This status means:
•    No new accounts can be opened for the client.
•    Interest in the client’s savings account will keep on accumulating, but no withdrawals will be allowed. Deposits will be allowed.
•    No new loans will be disbursed to the client, but repayments for current loans will be as scheduled.

On Hold status of a client should be indicated on all the client’s accounts to ensure that the client is unable to operate the accounts.
On Hold status can either be changed to Closed or Approved. The rules of the respective status will then be applicable on the record.
 Close A client record can be closed to indicate that the client is not banking with the branch anymore or a duplicate record for the client exists in the system. The flags associated with this state are: Transferred, Duplicate Account, Blacklisted, Left Program, and Other. Once closed, client can reapply again but the client record has to follow the complete application procedure.

 

The following table shows the various states that a group can be in:

 State  Description
 Partial application
If the record has been created, but data is incomplete or the user does not want the status to be “pending approval”, the status can be marked as “Partial Application”.  Group creation status defaults to this status if configured by the MFI.
 Pending approval
This is an optional state and can be hidden by the MFI.during the initial system setup and configuration.  The status means that the record contains all necessary data, and is waiting for approval pending any MFI manual process.
When a group is created, this is the default status if the user does not have access to 'approve' status.
 Active/Approved Group has been approved and is eligible to open a savings account or apply for a loan, or for other products offered by the MFI. To be Active, every Group must have a loan officer assigned.
 Cancel A group application can be canceled due to various reasons, which include withdrawal of the application; the application was rejected by an officer of the MFI; the group is not eligible as it has been Blacklisted; or a duplicate group record already exists and thus one record is being canceled.
 On hold
If the group status is marked On hold, it will have the following implications:
  • New accounts: No new accounts will be opened for the group.
  • Savings account: Interest in savings account will keep on accumulating interest, but no withdrawals will be allowed. Deposits will be allowed.
  • Loans: No new loans will be disbursed to the group, but repayments for current loans will be as scheduled.
  • “On Hold” status can either be changed to Closed or Active/Approved. The rules of the respective status will then be applicable on the record.
  • If a group is On Hold, clients and client accounts will not be affected.
 Close
  • A group record can be Closed to indicate that the group is not banking with the branch anymore, or a duplicate record for the group exists in the system. The flags associated with this state are: Transferred, Duplicate Account, Left Program, Blacklisted, and Other.
  • A group cannot be closed if any client has 'on-hold' or 'active' status.
  • Once closed, group can reapply again, but the record creation has to follow the complete application procedure again.
  • Every time the status of the group is changed to "closed", Mifos system has to validate if all group accounts have been closed and all individuals are either reassigned or closed.

 

Follow these instructions to change the status:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts.
  2. In the Search box, type the name of the group or client and click Search.
  3. In the results box, click the name of the group or client you want.
    The details page (dashboard) for that group or client appears.
  4. Click  Edit Group Status or Edit Client Status.
    The Change status box appears. It might look like the following screen:

    mifosclientchangestatus
  5. Click the button for the new status.
    For a group, if you click Closed, click a reason from the list immediately below.
  6. In the Note box, type a note explaining why this status is changing.
  7. Click Preview to review your change.
  8. If you want to make further changes, click Edit Status, make any changes, and click Preview again.

 

How to view performance history

On the details page (dashboard) for centers, groups, and clients, performance history is summarized in a box at the upper right.

Performance history of a center

For a center, it includes the following:

Performance history of a group

For a group, it includes the following:

Performance history of a client

For a client, it includes the following:

This data is also viewable from the client and group dashboards, at the bottom, from the View Summarized Historical Data link.

How to attach and collect surveys

Surveys are ways for loan officers and others working in the branch to collect information about groups and clients. These surveys can include demographic information (income, family size, types of business) that might change over time, and they enable you to know your clients and serve their needs better. The process of attaching surveys is the same for centers, groups, and clients. The example used here is for a center.

Center workers can ask the survey questions directly from the computer screen, or they can print a copy of the survey and take it directly to the client. If they use a paper copy of the survey, they must enter the answers in the computer later.

To create a new survey, follow the instructions in How to create a new survey.

When you are ready to use the survey online (or to enter survey data from the printed copy), follow these instructions.

  1. In any Search box, type the name of a center, group, or client and click Search.
  2. In the list that appears, click the link for the correct center, group, or client.
  3. In the Center Details screen, click Attach a Survey.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosattachsurvey.png
  4. In the Select Survey list, click the survey you want to enter data for and click Continue. (You can see only the surveys that are available for this center.) The online form of the survey might appear like this screen:
    mifosattachsurvey2.png
  5. The default survey date is today's date. If you need to change this, type the day (XX), month (XX), and year (XXXX) of the actual survey.
  6. In the Surveyed By box, your name appears automatically. Type over this name if someone else has asked these questions.
  7. Click or type a response to each question. If the question is mandatory, you may not finish the survey until the question is answered.
  8. If you need to change answers, click Clear All to erase all of them.
  9. When you have answered all questions, click Preview to review the answers.
  10. If you want to make changes to the answers, click the Edit button, click Clear All to erase the answers, click or type the correct answers, and click Submit.
  11. In the Surveys box, the name and date of the survey now appear. To see details of that survey, click the name of the survey.

Introduction to loan accounts

What is a loan account?

A single MFI typically has several loan products, for example, a 4-year housing loan, and a 2-year educational loan. The product provides the terms and definitions of these different programs to the Mifos system. Loan products are available to the whole MFI.

If a customer wants to have a 2-year educational loan, the MFI uses the 2-year educational loan to create an account for the customer. The loan account is used to track transactions related to the loan, which include interest, repayment, and any applicable charges. The loan account is a specific instance of a loan product, with a specified interest rate and an account number, and it is owned by a specified MFI customer.

Group loans versus client loans

If your MFI is structured to have groups as well as clients, you have a choice of issuing group loans or individual loans. With group loans, the group as a whole is responsible for repayment and fees, and each individual in the group has a designated responsibility to pay their part of the debt.

The benefits of the group include the following:

The loan account "dashboard"

At any point, you can look at the details of a loan to find out its terms and its current status. Such a dashboard might look like this:


loan_dashboard_small.png

The following table summarizes the sections of the dashboard:

Category

Description

Loan account header

Loan account number, current status, disbursal date, and purpose of the loan

Account summary

Shows the loan amount, amount paid, and the loan balance broken down by the principal, interest, fees, and penalty. It includes a link to the repayment schedule.

Recent activity

A list of transactions that have taken place with regard to the loan.

Account details

Shows the loan account details, which include interest and repayment rules and collateral details. It includes a link to a section where you can create a receipt for payment.

More account and transaction details

Shows the status history, change log, and change history for the loan account.

Transactions

Provides the links to applying a payment, an adjustment, or a charge to the loan account.

Performance history

Show various loan account performance indicators.

Recent notes

Shows the three most recent notes appended to the loan account, with additional links to add a new note or view all the notes.

Loan account summary

The section displays the original loan, the amount paid and the balance for the principal, the loan interest, and the total fees and penalties on the loan account. These amounts are further subdivided by the balances for the loan account, the amount paid, and the loan balance. Totals for the original loan related amount, the amount paid, and the total loan balance appear as well.

The summary might look like this:
2mifosloansummar.png

The following table explains the entries shown on this page.


Original loan

Amount paid

Loan balance

Principal

The original loan amount. This cannot be updated once the account has been approved.

The amount paid against the principal up to the present date.

Original loan minus the amount paid.

Interest

A computed value showing the interest due from the loan account based on the original loan amount.

The total interest paid up to the present date.

The amount paid can be greater than the amount calculated in the original loan if interest can be recalculated.

The amount of interest remaining on the loan.

Fees

The amount expected from this account according to the fee types attached to the account.

The amount paid against fees and miscellaneous fees up to the present date.

The unpaid fee amount expected from this account.

Penalty

Zero at the start of the loan.

The total penalty amount paid up to the present date.

Penalties charged but not yet paid up to the present date.

Total

The total of the amounts listed above.

Repayment schedule

At any time, you can look at the repayment schedule (including all repayments to date, the number of repayments, due dates, and so forth) for a group or an individual loan. While you are looking at this page, you can use the links there to apply payment adjustments and charges.

The page might look like this:
2mifosrepaymentsched.png

The following table explains the entries on this page:

Column name

Description

Installment No.

Sequence number of the installment.

Due Date

The first due date is the first repayment start date. If the loan is disbursed during a meeting, the repayment Start Date is the disbursal date + frequency of loan repayment + grace period duration (considering holidays and nonworking days).

If the meeting day falls on a holiday, the new repayment date will be the next working day or the next repayment day, depending on how Mifos has been configured. No penalty is calculated for the period between the actual repayment date and the new repayment date.

In case the loan duration extends beyond the current year, the system will create the repayment schedule for all years. However, the system assumes that the subsequent years have NO holidays. When the holidays next year are defined in the system, the repayment schedule for that year will be regenerated, taking into account the Holidays specified.

If payment is not received, the penalty will be calculated from the new rescheduled date.

Succeeding Installment Due Dates are calculated based on Previous Installment Due Date, holidays, and nonworking days as defined by the MFI.

In case of holidays, if the head office configures it to be Next Repayment Day, no penalty will be calculated for that period. Penalty calculation will start if the client does not pay on the next repayment day.

Date Paid

The date when payment for the installment was received.

Principal

Principal paid or due, in the next payment or in the future.

Interest

Interest paid or due, in the next payment or in the future.

Fees

Fees paid or due, in the next payment or in the future.

Total

Total of the Interest + Principal + Fees.

Missed Installments

If a client or group misses payment for an installment, the same amount is included in the next installment due. For example, if the client has to repay $100 (principal = $80 and interest = $20) every month, and he or she defaults for the month of August, then for the month of September, the installment due (including penalty) is $202. The following computation shows how the $202 is arrived at:

Principal due $80

Interest due $20

Penalty due $2 (for the missed/defaulted installment)

Principal overdue $80 (for the missed/defaulted installment)

Interest overdue $20 (for the missed/defaulted installment)

Total amount due $202

Partial payments are accepted.

Group loans individual monitoring (GLIM)

Mifos currently offers two major types of loans, individual and group. In an individual loan, the individual is totally responsible for repayment of the loan and for payment of any associated fees. In a group loan, the group has a single loan account, and the group is the primary unit that the MFI interacts with; a single repayment schedule is maintained for the entire group. The group provides credit worthiness to all its members; if one member is delinquent in the group, then all the contracting group members are also considered delinquent.

If your MFI wants to do things differently-that is, if it wants to keep the credit worthiness of each individual in a group loan separate-it can use GLIM (group loans individual monitoring), which calculates performance history separately for each individual participating in a group loan.

With a GLIM loan, the group is still the primary unit that participates in transactions, but the performance history of each contracting member is calculated in a slightly different way when compared to how it is calculated for a regular group loan.

In a GLIM loan, all transactions (disbursals, payments, adjustments, bulk entry, and so forth) take place at the group level. The only major difference between GLIM and the usual group loans is that the initial loan account creation specifies the amounts given to each individual, the purposes for these amounts, and the way these loans affect the calculation of individual performance metrics.

Note: At the time of configuration, you must decide whether your group loans will be standard or will use GLIM. Once set, this option cannot be changed after deploying Mifos.

How to create a new loan account

You can create individual loans for clients and for groups. All the loan products defined by your MFI are available for use, and you can adjust the amount of these loans in the ranges set for those products. You can also define and adjust the interest rate for each loan, choose options for the payment schedule, set a grace period (extra time for repayment), set fees in addition to the loan repayment, choose the fund that this loan comes from, and associate the loan with your general ledger codes.

Note: If you want to make several loans at the same time to clients or groups, see How to create multiple loans (bulk loan creation).

Loans can be held by clients and groups. To create a new loan for one of these, you must navigate to the details page for that customer. You can do this in several ways:

From the Home screen search function

mifoshomesearch.png

From the Quick Start left navigation list (click Open New Loan Account)

mifosquickstart.png

From the Clients & Accounts left navigation panel (click Create Loan Account)

mifoscaquickstart.png

From the Clients & Accounts main panel (click a Branch Office from the list on the right to narrow down the search for the customer)

mifoscamainquickstart.png

All these methods ask for the name, system ID, or account number for a group or client. When you type this information and click Search, you see a list of all possible choices for your search information. Click the correct one, or (if you don't see the customer you were expecting) try retyping the search information carefully and then click Search again.

Once you see the details page for a customer (group or client), the procedure is the same. This example shows how to create a loan for a client.

Note : By default, repayments are due on center meeting dates. If you have specified an LSIM arrangement during configuration, you will see a box in which you can specify a repayment day that is different from the meeting day of the client's center. See Loan schedule independent of meeting for information about LSIM.

A screen shows details about this client's information and history with your MFI.

mifoscreateloan1.png

  1. In the Account Information section, find the Open New Account line and click the Savings link.
  2. The following screen appears:

    mifoscreateloan2.png
    The list includes all loan products that are available to this account owner. If the account owner is a client, the loan products listed are restricted to those applicable to Clients in the product definition and products applicable to groups are not listed. In addition, the list includes only those products with a repayment frequency that is a multiple of the client's meeting frequency. That is, a client who has a meeting frequency of every third or sixth or ninth week (a multiple of 3) is eligible for loan instances that have a repayment frequency of weeks in a multiple of 3. A client whose meeting frequency is the last Monday of every 2 months is eligible for loan instances that have a repayment frequency of months in a multiple of 2. (This condition does not apply to clients who have no scheduled meetings.) If you attempt to change a meeting schedule so that it violates any of the above conditions, the change will not be possible.

    Note: The only loans that appear on this list have a status of Eligible for New Accounts.

    There are no built-in restrictions on the number of loans that a client/group can have. Your MFI is responsible for the approval of any loan, and for the mix of loan products that any client or group is allowed to have. See How to manage the product mix" for information.

  3. In the Loan Product Name list, click the type of loan you want to create, and click Continue.
  4. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table (note that these fields may vary somewhat, depending on the details of the loan product itself):

    Field name

    Description

    Example

    Amount

    The loan amount for the client, limited to the minimum and maximum amounts shown in brackets.

    100.00

    Interest Rate

    Applicable interest rate, limited to the minimum and maximum values shown in brackets.  If a default field was defined for the product, this field shows the default interest rate value.

    The rate field can be zero but cannot be left blank.

    You may not change the interest rate once the loan has been paid out to the client.

    18

    No. of Installments

    The number of installments in which the loan will be repaid, limited to the values shown in brackets.

    12

    Disbursement Date

    The date when the loan is likely to be disbursed (paid out).  If the client/group has a meeting date, the date must be one of the meeting dates.

    This date will be used as a Loan Start Date to generate the repayment schedule. This field can be updated with the Actual disbursement when the loan is actually disbursed to the client. ?? This date can be in the past. The repayment schedule will be regenerated when this date is updated.

    If a client has no meeting date, this date will not be checked against the meeting date schedule.

    History information about the date change will not be available except in the change log.

    You may not change this date after the account is set to "active in good standing" status.

    02/07/2006

    Grace Period for Payments

    Type how long to wait for late repayment: that is, how many installments.

    If the loan product specifies "No grace" or if interest is automatically deducted at the time of disbursal, this field cannot be used.

    You can extend or reduce the length of the grace period if the grace period has not yet expired.

    The grace period starts as of the day the loan is disbursed to the client.


    Source of Funds

    Click the applicable source of funds for the loan as defined by the MFI.

    Tsunami

    Purpose of Loan

    Click the purpose of the loan.


    Business work activities

    The type of activity the client is engaged in.

    Farming

    Collateral type

    The type of collateral the client has provided for the loan.

    Type 1

    Collateral notes

    Explanatory notes about the collateral type applicable to the loan.

    Land title deed verified by loan officer

    External ID

    If this loan has an ID number from some other system, type it here.


    Additional information: Custom fields

    Enter any additional information required by your MFI in the custom fields.


    Administrative Set Fees

    Apply any set fees for this loan, as defined by your MFI.

    If you want to change the default fee amount for any fee displayed, type the amount in the box. If you want to remove this fee, check the Check to Remove Box.


    Additional Fee type

    Apply up to a maximum of 3 different fee types, as defined by your MFI.


  5. Click Continue.
  6. A screen appears summarizing the loan repayment installments. The screen you see might look like this:

mifoscreateloan5.png

The list of installments shows the following:

7 Click Preview to review all the loan information. If you want to make changes in the loan, click Edit Account Information, make the changes, and click Preview again.

8 When you are satisfied with all changes, click Submit for Approval (or, if you want to wait to submit this loan, click Save for Later). (If you decide not to create the loan at all at this time, click Cancel.)

A screen confirming the loan appears; it might look like this:

mifosconfirmloanaccount.png

Loan schedule independent of meeting (LSIM)

If your MFI intends to collect loan payments on nonmeeting days, it can set up this LSIM system to adjust the repayment schedule.

During the configuration process, the Allow Payments on Nonmeeting Days setting is turned on.

Then, in Mifos, you see the following differences when you create a loan:

· Ordinarily, the default disbursal date is the next meeting date. If LSIM is activated, however, you can change this date to something else. However, this disbursal date must be in the future.

· You can also change the default repayment day to a nonmeeting day (in the Repayment Day field), but it must occur at the same frequency as meeting days (that is, if the meeting occurs once a month, the repayment day must be once a month). You may not change the frequency of repayments.

Mifos calculates the repayment schedule, including grace periods, based on these dates.

How to change the status of (approve, close) loan accounts

How to approve or close a single loan account

Before loans can be disbursed, they must be approved by someone with the appropriate permissions. The same procedure is used to cancel loan applications.

The following table explains the meanings of the statuses that a loan can have. When you configure Mifos, you can decide which of these statuses is available for use. See the Configuration guide for information.

Status

Description

Partial Application

Save the loan account in this status when:

The information entered is not complete; or

Is required by the MFI as part of the loan approval process; or

Want to save it with this status for the time being.

Most loan account attributes can be modified when the account is in this status.

Use the Save for later button when saving the loan account

Pending Approval

This is an optional status showing that loan account information is complete information.  This status allows the MFI to execute offline process with regard to the loan account before approving it in the system.

The loan account can be cancelled when it is in this status.

Use the Submit for Approval button when saving the loan account

Approved

The loan amount and repayment schedule have been approved by the MFI. All loan account parameters including the interest amount, loan term and funding source of the account are frozen and cannot be changed at this state

The loan account can be cancelled when it is in this status.

Disbursed to LO

This is an optional state showing that the loan amount has been disbursed to the loan officer of the customer.

The loan account can be cancelled when it is this status.

Active in good standing

  1. Can be changed to this status once the loan has been disbursed to the customer.
  2. The Actual disbursement date can be entered at this point and the loan account grace period starts counting where applicable.
  3. This status confirms that the loan has been issued to the client.

Closed - Rescheduled

A loan can be rescheduled if the MFI allows rescheduling. The current loan account has to be closed with the status marked as Closed- Rescheduled, and a new loan account must be created; it can have the same or different conditions and rules compared to the previous loan.

The system will not link the old and new accounts.

Transactions can still be applied to accounts in this status, but the user will be given a warning before proceeding.

In performance reporting and other reporting, this loan will not be counted as part of the loan cycle.

Closed - Obligations met

  1. The system moves the account to this state automatically when the loan amount is completely paid off.
  2. The account can be moved to this status manually without validating if the amount has been paid off.

Active- Bad standing

The system moves to this status any time the loan account terms are violated, for example, if there is nonpayment of an installment.

The system automatically moves the account to Active in Good Standing once the amount overdue has been paid.

Closed- Written Off

The loan account can be written off if the MFI or Loan Officer  determines that the loan cannot be repaid.

Cancelled

A loan can be cancelled before it gets to Active and in Good Standing status.  The loan can be cancelled if the customer withdraws the application or an officer of the MFI rejects the application.

 

To approve (or cancel) a loan, follow these instructions:

  1. From any Search screen, search for the borrower name (client or group), or the loan account number if you know it.
  2. In the list of clients or groups that appears, click the correct one.
  3.  In the Account Information section, find the loan you need to approve (all loans that need approval have a yellow square next to them). Click that link.
  4. Click Edit Account Status.

    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosapproveloan.png

  5. Click either Partial Application, Application Approved, or Cancel. If you click Cancel, you must click an explanation from the list that appears, such as Rejected. If the application was withdrawn, click Withdraw. If neither explanation fits, click Other.
  6. In the Note box, type a note explaining any reasons for your action.
  7. Click Preview to review your work.
  8. If a survey is required for this loan product, you must check the Client has Completed Loan Survey box.
  9. Click Submit.

The loan now appears on the details page with a green square, showing that it is approved.
mifosapprovedloan.png

How to approve multiple accounts

See How to approve multiple loans (bulk loan approval) under bulk transactions.

How to disburse (pay out) a loan

You can disburse (pay out) a loan to the borrower starting on the day specified in the loan account. When you search for the loan, the date of disbursal appears near the top of the screen for this particular loan:

mifosdisbursaldate.png

Follow these instructions:

  1. In the loan account screen for the client or group, in the upper right corner, click Disburse Loan.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosdisburseloan.png
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field

    Description

    Example

    Disbursal Date

    The date the loan is being paid out

    19/01/2010

    Receipt ID

    If you are providing receipts, the identification of this receipt

    #40500

    Receipt Date

    The date the receipt was provided to the borrower

    19/022010

    Loan Amount

    The total amount of the loan

    3434.0

    Mode of payment

    Cash, cheque, voucher, or a custom mode set by your MFI

    Cash

    Payment Details

    Amount of any loan fee


    Mode of Payment

    If there is a loan fee, the way it is paid: cash, cheque, voucher, or a custom mode set by your MFI


  3. Click Review Transaction to review your choices.
  4. If you need to make any changes, click Edit Transaction, make changes, and click Review Transaction again.
  5. When you are satisfied with the disbursal details, click Submit.
    The disbursal date in the account status summary changes to reflect your changes.

How to reverse a loan disbursal (payout)

Sometimes, data entry errors result in loans that are created for the wrong client, or perhaps the wrong type of loan product is created for a client. The error might not be detected until several repayments have been made.

To correct this error, if you have the appropriate permissions, you can reverse the loan disbursal and all repayments made up to this point. This can happen only if the loan is in an "Active in good standing" or "Active in bad standing" state. (Afterward, if repayments have already been made, you can redo the disbursal by recreating the correct loan and applying all those repayments to it. Make a note of any repayments, so that you can apply them to the new loan. See How to redo a loan disbursal (payout)

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Reverse Loan Disbursal.
  2. In the screen that appears, type the account ID for the loan and click Search.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosreverseloan.png
  3. In the Note box, type a note explaining why this loan payout is being reversed, and click Preview to review your work.
  4. A summary of this action appears. Be sure that you intend to reverse this payout, as the action reverses all financial transactions made up to this date, and the loan account status will be marked as cancelled.
  5. If you are satisfied with this action, click Submit.
    The loan account is now marked cancelled. This action is recorded in account notes and adjustment notes, and the change is logged in account activity. The cancelled loan is not included in loan counts for any reports.

How to redo a loan disbursal (payout)

If you have the appropriate permissions, you can redo the payout (disbursal) of a loan that was previously reversed. You can apply any repayments for the erroneous loan to the new loan.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Redo Loan Disbursal.
  2. In the screen that appears, in the Name box, type the client or group who holds the loan account and click Search .
  3. All clients/groups with that name appear. Click the link for the correct one.
  4. In the screen that appears, in the Loan (Instance) Name list, click the type of loan product that you want to replace the incorrect one and click Continue.
  5. In the screen that appears, make your choices about the terms of the loan. For instructions, see How to create a loan account. Note that the disbursal date must be earlier than today's date.
  6. Click Continue.
    A screen appears for redoing and reviewing the repayment installments.
  7. For each installment, the Actual Payment Date and the Actual Amount Paid are already filled and can be changed.  Update the appropriate values in each repayment.
  8. Click Preview to review your work.
  9. If you need to make changes, click Edit Loan Account Information, make changes, and click Preview again.
  10. When you are satisfied with the new loan, click Submit.
    A confirmation page appears.

How to manage loan account details

Once a loan account is created, you can change a few details about it.

Follow these instructions:

  1. In any search box, type the name of the borrower, the system ID of the borrower, or the loan account number and click Search.
  2. In the list of results that appears, click the correct account.
    The details page for that loan appears.
  3. In the Account Details section, click Edit Account Information.
    A screen like the following appears:

    2mifoseditacctinfo

  4. In the available fields, type and click the appropriate changes you want to make. Use the table in "How to create a loan account" for details on the meaning of each field.
  5. Click Preview to review your changes. When you are satisfied, click Submit.

How to make transactions for a loan account

Regardless of whether the loan is held by a client or a group, the process of making transactions is the same.

In any Search box, type the name of the client or the group (or the number of the loan account, if you know it). If you type the client or group name, a list appears with all clients and groups having that name. Click the link for the correct one and, from the details page that appears, click the link for the correct loan account.

Then follow these instructions for the transaction that you want to make.

How to apply payments

  1. In the Transactions box at the upper right of the screen, click Apply Payments.
    A screen like the following appears:

    mifosapplypayment.png

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field

    Description

    Date of Transaction

    This shows today's date. If you need to change this date because the payment took place at another time, type the day (XX), month (XX), and year (XXXX) of the payment.

    Amount

    The amount of the payment. If the borrower is making only a partial payment, type the amount of this payment.

    Mode of Payment

    The way the payment was made.

    Receipt ID

    The number of the receipt, if you use one.

    Receipt Date

    Date the receipt was issued, if you used one.

  3. When you are done, click Review Transaction to review your work.

For information on uploading administrative documents that you can use for payment transactions, see "How to manage administrative documents."  You can get information on entering information on several accounts at the same time; see "How to enter collection sheet data."

How to apply adjustments

Sometimes errors occur when payments for a loan are recorded. If you need to cancel the full amount of the last repayment, you can do this by making an "adjustment." If you need to cancel several repayments, you must do each one separately.

When you have made an adjustment, Mifos divides the cancelled payment into principal, interest, and fees, and makes adjustments in each of these categories to the total amount still due for the loan.

Follow these instructions:

  1. In the Transactions box at the upper right of the screen, click Apply Adjustment.
    Note: If no payments have been made up to the present for this loan, this button does not appear.
    A screen like the following appears, showing the last payment made:

    4_18_2010_loan_adjustment.png

  2. Check the Check to Revert the Last Payment box.

  3. In the Notes box, type information describing why you made this adjustment.

  4. When you have made the adjustment, click Review Adjustment to review your work and click Submit.

How to repay a loan

You can repay the entire remaining loan balance at once using the Repay Loan link.  After following these instructions, the status of the loan will change to "Closed - Obligation Met".

  1. In the Transactions box at the upper right of the screen, click Repay Loan.
    A screen like the following appears:

    mifosrepayloan.png

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Mode of Payment

The way the payment was made

Receipt ID

A number for the receipt, if you use one.

Receipt Date

The date the receipt was issued, if you use one.

  1. When you are done, click Review Transaction to review your work.

  2. If you want to make changes, click Edit Transaction, make any changes, and click Review Transaction again.

  3. When you are satisfied with all changes, click Submit.

How to apply charges and fees

If you want to apply fees or penalties directly to the loan, following these instructions.

  1. In the Transactions box at the upper right of the screen, click Apply Charges.
    A screen like the following appears:

    mifosapplycharge.png

  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Select Charge type

Click the appropriate charge or fee.  These are loan fees that have been created or you can select Misc Fee or Misc Penalty

Amount

The amount to apply. If there is a set amount for this charge, it appears in the Amount box; type over this to change it.

  1. Click Submit.
    The charge now appears in the Upcoming Charges and the Recent Account Activity list. It will appear in Transaction History when posted.

Note the following:

How to remove recurring account fees

In the Recurring Account Fees section, near the bottom of the account details screen, a list of recurring account fees associated with the account are listed.  Click Remove for the fee you wish to remove. The fee is now gone from the Account Details section and is no longer associated with the loan account.

 

How to do an early repayment of Loan


After a loan is disbursed, a client can make repayments at any time. The date of repayment need not necessarily be on the date the amount is due. The repayment can be either partial or a full repayment of the total amount outstanding. Depending on the type of loan repayment (whether full or partial), one of the following repay options is used in Mifos:


Difference between Repay Loans and Apply Payments:

Apply Payments:

This is used in case of partial repayment of loan amount, where the repay amount is not equal to the amount due on a specific date. In this case, details of this transaction can be recorded into the Mifos system by modifying the default amount and entering an amount less than the expected amount. Before processing and saving the transaction details, Mifos performs the following validations:



Repay Loans:
After loan disbursal, the client can at any time repay the entire loan in a single payment. To record a total repayment, the Repay Loans option is used. The system calculates the total amount due as of the current date as follows:



Early repayment of Loans - Repay Loans and Waive Interest

Scenario: If the client repays the loan earlier than the due date and the loan product has been marked as ‘Can Waive Off Interest’.

1. Click Repay Loan link on the Loan Details page (top right of the screen). A screen like the following appears:



2.  As shown in the screenshot above, the Can Waive Off Interest option is enabled. (This is because the loan product has been marked as Can Waive Off Interest). Depending on your MFI’s current requirement, you have the option to disable it or retain it.



3. Select the appropriate mode of payment from the list provided. The receipt ID and receipt date are optional fields. After entering the required details, click Review Transactions. A screen like the following appears:



4. If any changes need to be made, click Cancel. This will direct back to the Loan Details page. Click Repay Loan again to make the necessary changes to the transaction.
If all details are in order, click Submit.

5. The status of the loan should read ‘Closed-obligation met’ as shown below.




To further verify that the transaction has indeed been recorded as 'closed' by the Mifos system, check that the Loans Balance field in the Accounts Summary section reads 0 (refer screenshot above).

Click View Repayment Schedule (in the Accounts summary section). The Repayment schedule should display all installments under the Installments Paid section.

  

How to track loan account history (transactions, performance)

How to view the history of all transactions

  1. At the bottom of the screen, click View Transaction History.
    A screen like the following appears (only part of the screen shows here):

    mifostransactionhistory.png

This screen shows the following:

How to view status history

At any point, you can see the history of a loan: the original application, whether it was approved, and whether it is active, in good standing, or closed. You can use this information to track the progress of the loan and the efficiency of the loan officer or the MFI approval process itself.

At the bottom of the screen, click View Status History.
A screen like the following appears:

mifosstatushistory.png 

How to view performance history

The box in the upper right corner summarizes the performance of the client or group for this loan. It includes the following: 

How to view missed installments

If an installment payment is missed, it is displayed in the overdue information, and the Total Amount Due includes the missed installment. For example, if a client has to repay $100 (principal = $80 and Interest = $20) every month, and she defaults for the month of August, then for the month of September, the following amounts are displayed in the Next Payment details:

How to view the change log

Any changes that have been made to loan details are contained in the change log. These might include

However, changes related to transactions (such as payment of principal, interest, fees, and penalties) are not logged.

At the bottom of the screen, click View Change Log to see these. The log might look like this:

2mifosviewloanchangelog

To return to the center details page, click Back to Details Page.

How to view and add notes about the loan

You can record any notes about the loan. To see all notes already recorded, in the recent Notes box at the bottom right of the screen, click See All Notes. Any notes added in other sections, such as account information or adjustments, appear in this section as well.

To add a note, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Add a Note.
    The following screen appears:

    mifoscenteraddnote.png
  2. In the Note box, type the note.
  3. Click Preview to review your work. If you want to make changes, click Edit, make changes, and click Submit.
    The note now appears in the Recent Notes section.

How to manage Variable Loan Installments

How to create a Variable Installment Loan product 

Overview: Often times, MFIs face the need to tailor loan disbursement, loan repayment recovery and loan maturity to suit the cash flow patterns of the borrower. This is especially true of products like agricultural loans where clients repayments can be quite volatile. The volatility arises due to increased vulnerability of the agricultural industry to factors like inclement weather. Consequently returns in such sectors are seasonal, unpredictable and often lower than those of the regular commercial enterprises for which MFIs disburse loans. This necessitates the need for MFIs to have customized loans products, which allow for more flexibility with the installment schedule. 

The Variable Installment Loans feature of Mifos enables MFIs to accommodate this flexibility by specifying different gaps between installments, as explained in the sections below.   

Configuring variable installments when defining a new loan product.

To configure variable installments, the checkbox 'Can configure variable installment' must be enabled. For the checkbox to be enabled, the following two conditions must be met:


In other words, when the LSIM feature is ON and the selected interest rate type is other than ‘declining’, ‘can configure variable installment’ checkbox will get disabled.

 

How to configure variable installments when defining a new loan product.

 1. Under section Repayment Schedule, check the 'Can configure variable installments' checkbox.

2. The following parameters will be displayed:


 

Minimum Gap between Installments - This is the minimum gap, in days, that is required between two consecutive installments. This is a required field. 

Maximum Gap between Installments - This is the maximum gap, in days, between installments. This value is optional.

Minimum Installment Amount -  The minimum amount that needs to be repaid at each installment. This value is optional. 

 

Compare with Cash Flow settings:  

Mifos provides MFIs the option to compare loan installments with customer's cash flow. This option allows MFIs to specify conditions with regard to customers' cash flow and loans are created in accordance with these conditions. This feature is available for loans with variable installment and without. 

To enable comparison with cash flow, mark the checkbox 'Compare with Cash Flow'. The following parameters will be displayed:

 

Warning Threshold - This value, expressed as a percentage, is the fraction of a customer's cumulative cash flow and the upper limit for loan installment for any period. In other words, this field will be used to alert a user if the loan installment for any period is above a certain percentage of the cumulative cash flow (cash flow calculation explained is explained in the following section). The warning threshold can be between 0 and 99% (It cannot be a 100% because it would then mean that loan installments for any period can be equal to a customer's cumulative cash flow).

Indebtedness Ratio - This value specifies the range within which a client's indebtedness rate can fall (Formula for calculation of indebtedness rate is explained in the following section). Mifos allows loans to be created only if the calculated Indebtedness Rate for a client is lesser than this pre-specified value.  This value is expressed as a percentage and can be between 0 and 50%.

Repayment Capacity -  This value specifies the range within which a client's repayment capacity can fall (Formula for calculation of repayment capacity is explained in the following section).  Mifos allows loans to be created only if the calculated Repayment Capacity for a client is is between the pre-specified range.  This value is expressed as a percentage and can be between 150 and 1000%.

How to create a new loan account with variable installments

As discussed in the previous section,  variable installment loans can be created with or without the compare with cash flow option. We first look at the process of creating a variable installment loan without cash flow comparison enabled.

Before creating a loan with variable installment, ensure that the required loan product has variable installment option enabled. If variable installment has already been enabled for the loan product, please skip the following steps and move to the next section 'Creating New Loan'.

If a new loan product with variable installment has to be created, follow the steps mentioned in the previous section to create new loan product with variable installments.

To have variable installment configured for an existing loan product, follow these steps:

1. Click Admin>Manage Loan Products>View Loan Products. A list of existing loan products is displayed.


 

 2. Select the loan product which needs to be modified by clicking on it. The loan product's details are displayed as shown in the screenshot below.


 

3. Click 'Edit Loan Product Information' on the top right of the page. The loan product details page appears in Edit mode. Scroll down to section 'Repayment Schedule'.

4.  Check the 'Can configure variable installments' checkbox and fill in the installment details as explained in the previous section.

Grace period in variable installments: To specify grace period for variable installment loans, the grace period should first be set at the product level. While creating the loan product, under section Repayment Schedule, fill in the grace period details as explained in the How to Define and Change New and Existing Loan Products section. This is how grace period is implemented in the case of variable installment loans: 

     if Grace period duration  = 3 installments  

     frequency of installments for variable installment loan product =  1 week.

Then, only after the completion of 3 installments of one week each will the loan move to active in bad standing.    

 

Creating New Loan Account with Variable Installments

For a detailed explanation on how to create new loan, refer to section section "How to Create a Loan Account" under chapter "Loan Accounts". The loan creation process is also explained below briefly, including the variable installment feature.

Loans can be created for individual clients or groups. The process of creating loans is the same for both clients and groups.

1. Click Clients & Accounts on the main panel. The following screen appears.


2. Client/ group search can be done with the name, system ID, phone number or account number. When you type this information and click Search, a list of all possible choices matching the search information is displayed. Click the correct one, or (if you don't see the customer you were expecting) try retyping the search information carefully and then click Search again. A screen similar to the following is displayed:


 3. Select the required client by clicking on the client's name in the list. The client's details are displayed, similar to the screenshot below.

 

 4. To create a new loan, click on Loan on the top right of the Account Information section. The following screen is displayed. Select the required loan product (the product with variable loan installment in this case). Click Continue.

   

 5.  The Loan Account information page is displayed. The loan product summary shows the variable installments configuration details (minimum and maximum gap between installments, etc).

 

 

  6. In the account details section, enter the account details. 

   

 

 7.  Enter information using the descriptions in the following table (note that these fields may vary somewhat, depending on the details of the loan product itself.):

  1. Field name

    Description

    Example

    Amount

    The loan amount for the client, limited to the minimum and maximum amounts shown in brackets.

    100.00

    Interest Rate

    Applicable interest rate, limited to the minimum and maximum values shown in brackets.  If a default field was defined for the product, this field shows the default interest rate value.

    The rate field can be zero but cannot be left blank.

    You may not change the interest rate once the loan has been paid out to the client.

    18

    No. of Installments

    The number of installments in which the loan will be repaid, limited to the values shown in brackets.

    12

    Disbursement Date

    The date when the loan is likely to be disbursed (paid out).  If the client/group has a meeting date, the date must be one of the meeting dates.

    This date will be used as a Loan Start Date to generate the repayment schedule. This field can be updated with the Actual disbursement when the loan is actually disbursed to the client. ?? This date can be in the past. The repayment schedule will be regenerated when this date is updated.

    If a client has no meeting date, this date will not be checked against the meeting date schedule.

    History information about the date change will not be available except in the change log.

    You may not change this date after the account is set to "active in good standing" status.

    02/07/2006

    Grace Period for Payments

    Type how long to wait for late repayment: that is, how many installments.

    If the loan product specifies "No grace" or if interest is automatically deducted at the time of disbursal, this field cannot be used.

    You can extend or reduce the length of the grace period if the grace period has not yet expired.

    The grace period starts as of the day the loan is disbursed to the client.


    Source of Funds

    Click the applicable source of funds for the loan as defined by the MFI.

    Tsunami

    Purpose of Loan

    The purpose for which the loan has been disbursed

    Material Purchase

    Business work activities

    The type of activity the client is engaged in.

    Farming

    Collateral type

    The type of collateral the client has provided for the loan.

    Type 1

    Collateral notes

    Explanatory notes about the collateral type applicable to the loan.

    Land title deed verified by loan officer

    External ID

    If this loan has an ID number from some other system, type it here.


    Additional information: Custom fields

    Enter any additional information required by your MFI in the custom fields.


    Administrative Set Fees

    Apply any set fees for this loan, as defined by your MFI.

    If you want to change the default fee amount for any fee displayed, type the amount in the box. If you want to remove this fee, check the Check to Remove Box.


    Additional Fee type

    Apply up to a maximum of 3 different fee types, as defined by your MFI.



 

 Click Submit after entering the required details. 

 8. The loan installment schedule for the client is summarized and displayed. The screen looks something like this.

  

The installments table displays the following fields:

Editing Installment Due Dates and Installment Amounts

The Due Date field is editable and the dates can be modified, in keeping with the variable installment conditions specified while creating the loan (specifically the minimum gap between installments field which is the required field).

Similarly, the total installment amount field is also editable - all installment amounts except the last installment are editable. The installment amounts can be modified, in keeping with the conditions specified at the time of creation of the loan product (minimum installment amount). Also ensure that the installment amount entered for a period is not any lesser than either the sum of Fee and Interest for that period or the Minimum Installment Amount specified during product creation, whichever is greater.

After the edits are done,  click Validate. This function will check if the modified due dates and modified installment amounts are in accordance with the conditions specified. Possible errors are as follows:

 Below are two sample error screens:

 Error Type - Gap between installment due dates less than allowed minimum

 

Error Type - Installment due date falls on holiday

  

 9. After the errors are resolved and the due dates adjusted, click Preview. A screen similar to this will be displayed.

   

   


  

 10. If any of the above details need to be edited, click Edit account information or Edit Loan Schedule Information depending on what needs to be edited. 

11. When you are satisfied with all changes, click Submit for Approval (or, if you want to wait to submit this loan, click Save for Later). (If you decide not to create the loan at all at this time, click Cancel.)  

 

Creating New Loan Account with Variable Installments and Cash Flow Comparison configured

Overview: Cash Flow comparison feature enables MFIs to first assess if their clients have enough money to repay loans. This assessment is done by comparing the client's overall cash flow with his/ her monthly installment.  

Creating a new Loan account: Before proceeding with creating a new loan account with cash flow comparison, ensure that the specific loan product has cash flow comparison feature enabled. To enable this, refer to section "Cash flow comparison settings".

Once the cash flow comparison settings have been enabled at the loan product level, follow these steps to create a new loan account with variable installments.

The process of creating a new loan account with cash flow comparison is similar to what has been outlined in the previous section ("Create a new loan account with variable installments").  For clarity, the steps are stated again with the new inclusion, cash flow comparison. Skip down to Step 7 to view the cash flow comparison section. 

Loans can be created for individual clients or groups. The process of creating loans is the same for both clients and groups.

1. Click Clients & Accounts on the main panel. The following screen appears.


2. Client/ group search can be done with the name, system ID, phone number or account number. When you type this information and click Search, a list of all possible choices matching the search information is displayed. Click the correct one, or (if you don't see the customer you were expecting) try retyping the search information carefully and then click Search again. A screen similar to the following is displayed:

 


 3. Select the required client by clicking on the client's name in the list. The client's details are displayed, similar to the screenshot below.


 

 4. To create a new loan, click on Loan on the top right of the Account Information section. The following screen is displayed. Select the required loan product (the product with variable loan installment in this case). Click Continue.

   

 5.  The Loan Account information page is displayed. The loan product summary shows the variable installments configuration details (minimum and maximum gap between installments, etc).

 

  6.  In the account details section, enter the account details and click Continue. To cancel and return to the previous page, click Cancel.


 7. The Cash Flow Details screen is displayed. The screen will look something like this.

 

 

All the months which fall between the first and the last installments, including the first and the last installment months are displayed. In addition, the month immediately preceding the first installment month and the month immediately following the last installment are displayed. 

Example 1: Disbursal date: 26-Aug-2010, No. of Installments: 3, Frequency of Loan Installments: 1 month

Installment Months: September, October and November.

Cash flow months will be captured for months : August, September, October, November, December. 

Example 2: Disbursal date: 26-Aug-2010, No. of Installments: 8, Frequency of Loan Installments: 2 Weeks

Installment Months: September, October, November and December.

Cash flow months will be captured for months : August, September, October, November, December, January. 

Cash Flow Data 

Enter the client's expense and revenue for each of the listed months, in the fields "Expense" and "Revenue" respectively. In the notes column, enter any comment/ note about the client's revenue/ expense for that particular month. Also enter the client's Total Capital and Total Liability. Click Continue. The client's cash flow is calculated, as explained below.

Cash Flow Comparison calculation 

In general, cash flow is captured starting one month before the first installment month to allow the MFI to enter cash in hand thus far leading into the installment month. On the disbursal month, the loan amount is added to the the cumulative cash flow for comparison.

The month immediately following the last installment month is added to allow the MFI to see what sort of an impact loan payment will have on the customer. If there is a sudden drop of cash of the customer into the month right after the loan payment, then it may lead to a situation where the customer may default. Thus, to better understand the customer's position after repayment of loan, MFIs capture the cash flow for the following month as well. 

After the revenue and expenses for each month are entered and you click Continue, the system calculates the indebtedness rate and repayment capacity of the client with the information provided in the cash flow capture page. If the client's indebtedness rate is greater than the allowed value specified during creation of the loan product or if the client's repayment capacity is less than the threshold value specified during creation of the loan product, the loan account cannot be created.

Formula for calculation of Indebtedness Rate:  

Indebtedness Rate= (Total liability + loan amount)*100/Total capital

Example:

During loan product definition, the indebtedness rate has been set as 100. 

Assume a Rs.1000 loan is being applied for. 

Total liability = Rs.5000, Total capital = Rs.4000 (entered by the user)

Indebtedness rate = (5000 + 1000)*100/4000 = 150. 

The client's indebtedness rate is greater than the permissible limit, hence Mifos will not allow the loan to be created. An error message will be displayed as follows.

 

 

Formula for Calculation of Repayment Capacity:

Repayment Capacity=[(Total revenues-Total expenses)+Loan Amount]*100 / Sum of Installments amount

Example: 

During loan product definition, the Repayment Capacity limit has been set as 150. 

Assume a Rs.1000 loan is being applied for. 

Assume sum of all expenses entered by the user on the cash flow page is Rs.5000 and the sum of all revenues entered is 10000. Assume the sum of all installment amounts is 1500.

Repayment Capacity = [(10000 - 5000) + 1000] * 100/ 1500 = 400.

The Repayment Capacity of 400 is over the required minimum capacity of 150. Thus, Mifos allows the loan to be created. 

 

8.  After the cash flow details have been entered and the system allows the loan to be created, the Review Installments page is displayed. The page contains details of the installments and a summary of the cash flow. A screen similar to this will be displayed.


Please refer to the previous section "Creating new loan with variable installments" for details on how to edit the installment dates and total installment amount.

The Cash Flow summary table displays the following fields:

Months - Name of the installment month

Cumulative Cash Flow - This is calculated as: Cash flow for present installment + Sum of cash flows for all previous installments

Cumulative Cash Flow - Total Installment Amount per month - This value is the difference between the cumulative cash flow for a particular installment month and the total installment amount for that month.

Total installment amount per month as % of cash flow - If this value exceeds the warning threshold specified at the time of loan product creation, then Mifos will not allow the loan to be created.

 Notes - Any notes recorded in the system for that particular installment month.

 

9. To proceed with the loan creation, click Validate. This will validate the edited installment data against the conditions specified at the time of loan product creation. (please refer previous section on "Creating new loan with variable installments" for the various validations performed and possible errors). 

10. Click Preview  to click the loan account information.  A screen similar to this will be displayed. 

 


 

 

 If any of the above details need to be edited, click Edit account information or Edit Loan Schedule Information depending on what needs to be edited. 

11. When you are satisfied with all changes, click Submit for Approval (or, if you want to wait to submit this loan, click Save for Later). (If you decide not to create the loan at all at this time, click Cancel.) 

 

 

 

Introduction to savings accounts

What is a savings account?

You can create savings accounts for centers, groups, and clients based on the savings products defined in Mifos. All accounts inherit the rules of the product they are created from.

Note: The savings product must be in an Active state before you can create an account based on it.

Savings accounts are vital to the economic health of the client or group. MFIs encourage regular contributions to these accounts, and in some cases make contributions mandatory. Your MFI could make a rule that you cannot create loan accounts for borrowers unless their savings accounts are at a minimum level. You may also make a rule that the client or group does not earn interest if the savings account is lower than a specified minimum amount.

If you create a savings account for a group or a center, all members of the group or center can deposit to and withdraw from these accounts. Usually, when a transaction is made, the user chooses the client name from a list of approved clients belonging to that group or centre.

A center, group, or client can have more than one account, of the same or different savings products, but a single account cannot be shared by more than one center, group, or client. In addition, no conversion is allowed between individual client accounts and center/group accounts.

Mandatory versus voluntary savings

Some MFIs make their savings accounts mandatory. The minimum deposit amount is considered "due" at every meeting day of the account owner.  Partial payments are allowed. If the client or group does not make this minimum deposit on time, the required deposit amount at the next meeting is increased by that amount. For example, if the minimum deposit is 50, and the client does not pay, then at the next meeting, the required deposit will be 100. If the minimum deposit is 50 and the client pays 25, then at the next meeting, the required deposit will be 75.

If the savings account is held by a center, the deposit amount is applied to all clients in Active or On Hold states. If the savings account is held by a group, and the minimum deposit applies to each group member separately, the deposit amount is applied to clients in Active or On Hold states.

Voluntary accounts have no minimum deposit, though there is a "recommended deposit" amount that can be included in the definition of the savings product.

The savings account "dashboard"

The savings account details page ("dashboard") shows the detailed transactions and functions related to savings accounts. It includes the account status, the recent activity status, and transaction tracking details.

To view the dashboard, in any Search box, type the account number for the savings account. You can also type the client or group name and click the account link from the details page for that client or group.

The screen might look like the following:
mifossavingsdash

The dashboard might include the following items:

Category

Description

Savings account header

Savings account number, current status, balance, and amount due at next meeting (if account is mandatory)

Recent Activity

A list of transactions that have taken place with regard to the account.

Account Details

Shows the savings account details, which include recommended or mandatory amount for deposit, type of deposit, maximum amount allowed per withdrawal, and interest rate.

More account and transaction details

Shows the status history, change log, and change history for the loan account.

Transactions

Provides the links to making a deposit, withdrawal, or adjustment, or closing the savings account.

Performance history

Show various account performance indicators, such as total deposits, withdrawals, and interest.

Recent Notes

Shows the three most recent notes appended to the account, with additional links to add a new note or view all the notes.

How to create a new savings account

The following are necessary for you to create a savings account:

Note: You may not delete savings accounts.

You can create a new account from several places in Mifos.  One way is to navigate to the details page for that client, group, or center.  You can do this by searching for the client, group, or center from the Search on the Home screen or navigating to the details page directly

Another way to create savings accounts is from the quick links in Mifos.

All these methods ask for the name, system ID, or account number for a center, group, or client. When you type this information and click Search, you see a list of all possible choices for your search information. Click the correct one, or (if you don't see the customer you were expecting) try retyping the search information carefully and then click Search again.

Once you have selected the customer you are creating the account for, the procedure is the same.

  1. The following screen appears:
    mifoscreatesavaccount2
  2. In the Savings Product Name list, click the type of account you want to create, and click Continue. A screen appears summarizing the terms of the savings product. For information on these terms, see "How to define and change new savings products"
    mifoscreatesavaccount3
  3. Review the terms. If you are satisfied, click Preview.
  4. If you want to change anything about this savings account, click Edit Savings Account Information, make changes, and click Preview again.
  5. When you are satisfied with all details, click Submit for Approval (or, if you want to submit this account later, Save for Later). (If you decide not to create a savings account at all at this time, click Cancel.)

How to approve a savings account

When an application for a savings account is made, the account appears in the Account Information section of the client or group dashboard with a yellow circle, as in the following screen:

mifospendingaccount

The savings account "dashboard"

The savings account details page ("dashboard") shows the detailed transactions and functions related to savings accounts. It includes the account status, the recent activity status, and transaction tracking details.

To view the dashboard, in any Search box, type the account number for the savings account. You can also type the client or group name and click the account link from the details page for that client or group.

The screen might look like the following:
mifossavingsdash

The dashboard might include the following items:

Category

Description

Savings account header

Savings account number, current status, balance, and amount due at next meeting (if account is mandatory)

Recent Activity

A list of transactions that have taken place with regard to the account.

Account Details

Shows the savings account details, which include recommended or mandatory amount for deposit, type of deposit, maximum amount allowed per withdrawal, and interest rate.

More account and transaction details

Shows the status history, change log, and change history for the loan account.

Transactions

Provides the links to making a deposit, withdrawal, or adjustment, or closing the savings account.

Performance history

Show various account performance indicators, such as total deposits, withdrawals, and interest.

Recent Notes

Shows the three most recent notes appended to the account, with additional links to add a new note or view all the notes.

 

How to change the status of a savings account

You can change the status of a savings account depending on what status it is in.

The following table shows the descriptions of all the statuses a savings account can have. Depending on how your MFI is configured and in what status the savings account is in, you may not see all of these status choices.

Status

Description

Partial Application

If the record has been created but data is incomplete, or if the user does not want the status to be pending approval, status can be marked as Partial Application. More data can be added, or the record can be edited in this state.

Pending Approval

The record contains all necessary data and is waiting for approval. Before and after this point, there could be some offline processes, which might govern the approval process. These processes can be specific to each MFI and will not have an impact on Mifos functionality.

Approved/ Active

The savings account has been approved. After this, the customer can start transacting and operating their savings account.

Inactive

In case there are no transactions in the savings account for a certain number of days (the default is 30), the state is automatically changed to Inactive. If a transaction is made, the state will changes to Approved/ Active.

Cancel

A savings application can be cancelled for various reasons:

  • The customer can withdraw the application
  • The application was rejected the MFI
  • Because the customer is blacklisted, they are not eligible.

Closed

The savings account is closed and archived.

  1. From the account dashboard, click Edit Account Status.
  2. In the Status section, click the Status you would like the Account to change to.
  3. In the Notes box, type a reason for the change in status.
  4. Click Preview to review the change.
  5. If you want to make changes, click Edit Status, make changes, and click Preview again.
  6. When you are satisfied with the changes, click Submit.
    The account dashboard shows the new status.

How to manage savings account details

You can make changes to the recommended deposit amount. If your MFI has defined additional fields, you can change those in this section as well.

  1. From the savings account dashboard, click Edit Account information.
    The following screen appears:
    4_18_2010_edit_savings.png
  2. Make any changes to the account.
  3. Click Preview to review them.
  4. When you are satisfied with the changes, click Submit.

 

How to make transactions for a savings account

How to make deposits to or withdrawals from a savings account

  1. Click Make Deposit/Withdrawal.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifossavingdeposit.png
  2. Enter information using the decriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Example

Date of Transaction

The date of this deposit or withdrawal

03/04/2010

Payment Type

Deposit or withdrawal

Deposit

Enter Amount

The amount of deposit or withdrawal

200

Mode of Payment

The way the money will be transferred

Cash

Receipt ID

The number of the receipt, if you use one

00034

Receipt Date

The date the receipt was issued, if you use one

03/04/2010

  1. When you are done, click Review Transaction to review your work.
  2. If you want to make changes, click Edit Transaction, make any changes, and click Review Transaction again.
  3. When you are satisfied with all changes, click Submit.

How to make adjustments to a savings deposit

Sometimes errors occur when savings accounts transactions are recorded. If you need to cancel the full amount of the last deposit or withdrawal, you can do this by making an "adjustment." If you need to cancel several transactions, you must do each one separately.

Follow these instructions:

  1. From the Transactions box at the upper right of the screen, click Apply Adjustment.
    A screen like the following appears, showing the last payment made:
    4_18_2010_savings_adjustment.png
  2. In the Correct Amount, type the accurate deposit or withdrawal amount.
  3. In the Notes box, type information describing why you made this adjustment.
  4. When you have made the adjustment, click Review Adjustment to review your work, and click Submit.

Adjustments appear in performance tracking, summarized historical data, and the change log.

How to track savings account history (transactions, performance)

How to view the history of all transactions

  1. At the bottom of the screen, click View Transaction History.
    A screen like the following appears (only part of the screen shows here):

    2mifossavingtransaction

This screen shows the following:

How to view status history

At any point, you can see the history of a savings account: the original application, whether it was approved, and its current status. 

At the bottom of the screen, click View Status History.
A screen like the following appears:

2mifossavinghistory
 

How to view performance history

On the details page (dashboard) for centers, groups, and clients, performance history is summarized in a box at the upper right.

It includes the following:

How to view the change log

In the center, group, or client dashboard (details page), you can see a record of all changes that have been made. At the bottom of that screen, click View Change Log. It might look like the following screen:

mifosclientchangelog.png

How to view and add notes about the savings account

You can record any notes about the savings account. To see all notes already recorded, in the recent Notes box at the bottom right of the screen, click See All Notes. Any notes added in other sections, such as account information or adjustments, appear in this section as well.

To add a note, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Add a Note.
    The following screen appears:

    2mifossavingaddnote
  2. In the Note box, type the note.
  3. Click Preview to review your work. If you want to make changes, click Edit, make changes, and click Submit.
    The note now appears in the Recent Notes section.

 

How to enter collection sheet data

The collection sheet is set up to make your collections easy. After you type in the information for the branch, loan officer, date, and mode of payment, you see a form that already includes all payments and deposits that are expected on that date. Fields that have changed (such as missed payments and absences from meetings) display in red, so that you can see them immediately.

If you have appropriate permissions, you can enter the data for collections from clients and groups.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts > Enter Collection Sheet Data.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifoscollsheet1.png
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field

    Description

    Branch office

    The appropriate branch office

    Loan officer

    Loan officer of accounts for this collection sheet

    Date of Transaction

    The default is today's date. If you need to change the date, type over the existing dates.

    Mode of Payment

    The appropriate type of payment

    Receipt ID

    The number of the receipt, if any

    Receipt Date

    The date that the receipt was issued, if any.

  3. Click Continue.
  4. A screen appears summarizing all the accounts at this branch whose collections fall on the day you specified. It might look like the following: mifoscollsheet2amifoscollsheet2b
  5. Notice the following fields:

How to create multiple loans (bulk loan creation)

You can create loans of the same type at the same time for many clients and groups within the same center. You might want to do this, for example, if there were a natural disaster in a village and many clients needed household improvement loans at the same time. It takes only one process to create the loans; you can also approve them in one step. Clients or groups must be active at the time you create these loans. You can specify the following:

Follow these instructions:

  1. From the Clients & Accounts Tasks list in the left navigation pane, click Create Multiple Loan Accounts.
    The following screen appears:

    mifoscreatemultiloan1.png
  2. In the Branch Office, Loan Officer, Center, and Loan  Product Name lists, click the appropriate values.
  3. Click Search.
  4. All client and groups in this center who are assigned to the loan officer appear in a list.
  5. In the checkbox at the far left of the list, check those clients and groups who will receive the loan.
  6. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

Field

Description

Example

Loan Amount

The amount of the loan for each client or group. The default loan amount is in the box; the range for this type of loan appears on the right.

200

Purpose of Loan

The appropriate purpose for each client or group.

Education

 
mulitcreateloan1b.png
  1. When you are satisfied with the loans, click Submit for Approval (or, if you want to submit this loan later, click Save for Later). (If you decide not to create multiple loans at all at this time, click Cancel.)
    A screen appears confirming the creation of the loans. It might look like this:
    multicreateloan2.png
    Loans are then subject to approval. See How to approve multiple loans for information on how to approve this application.

Note: To disburse (pay out) these loans, and to see when they are ready to disburse, read How to disburse (pay out) a loan.

How to import transactions

If you have appropriate permissions, and if your MFI is set up for this action, you can import transactions from another system.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Import Transactions.
    A screen like the following appears:
    importtransaction.png
  2. In the Import Format list, click the format of the transaction information.
  3. In the Select Import File section, click Choose File to browse your files, and double-click the one you want to import.
  4. The filename appears on the screen.
  5. Click Review to review your choice. Check with your MFI for further instructions.

 

How to import M-PESA transactions

M-PESA is a mobile-phone based money transfer service designed to enable users to complete basic banking transactions without the need to visit a bank branch. This form of a branchless banking service would allow borrowers to conveniently receive and repay loans through mobile phones. This would enable microfinance institutions (MFIs) to offer more competitive loan rates to their users, as there is a reduced cost of dealing in cash. The users of the service would gain through being able to track their finances more easily.   

Overview of the M-PESA import plug-in

The M-PESA import plug-in is the basis for mobile money integration with Mifos. This plugin integrates with Kenya's leading mobile money platform by supporting the import of an Excel (.xls) spreadsheet into Mifos. MFIs accepting transactions via M-PESA currently download a spreadsheet with a record of each transaction from Safaricom. Safaricom is a mobile network operator in Kenya.

What the plug-in does 

This plugin allows for the import and validation of these transactions via the mobile phone number of the customer.  Currently the plugin supports the import of loan repayments and savings deposits into Mifos. Incoming payments are first applied towards the current amount due on any applicable loans and the remaining amount is then deposited to a savings account.  

Install and Configure Plug-in

To install and configure the plug-in, refer to the documentation available here

The M-PESA mode of loan repayment should also be added to the mifos system - as lookup option and payment type.

Add MPESA as Lookup Option 

1. Click Admin> Define Lookup Options. 

2. Under category Payment Modes, add MPESA. To add this option, click the edit option next to Payment Modes. A textbox to add a new payment mode is displayed. Add MPESA and click Submit. *IMPORTANT: This must be MPESA, not M-PESA or any other variant. 

 

 3. After clicking Submit, check and ensure that MPESA has been added to the list displayed under payment modes.

 

 

 Add M-PESA as Payment Type

Before adding M-PESA as an accepted payment type, make sure that it has already been added as a Lookup Option. 

 1. Click Admin>Define Accepted Payment Types. The following categories and fields will be displayed.

   

2. Since M-PESA has already been added as a lookup option, it will be displayed on the left box under each category. Add M-PESA as an accepted payment type. To do this, click on M-PESA on the left box to select. Then click Add. 

 

3. Click Submit.

Take note of the following points while configuring the plug-in:

 

How to define order to apply transactions

In the properties file called ke.co.safaricom.MPesaXlsImporter.ImportTransactionOrder specify the default order of transactions. This can be done by specifying all required product names separated by comma (,). Accounts to which repayments and deposits are made will be applied to in the order specified here when importing a row.

While specifying the order of transactions, make sure that there is only one savings account at the end. 

If the default order of transactions is not specified in the properties file, you will have to manually specify which the short name of the loan product in which to apply payments to in the Transaction Party Details column in the spreadsheet being imported.

Otherwise, during import you will receive an error noting "Missing required data". 

You can confirm whether or not the order to apply transactions has been defined by going to Admin - View organization settings. Underneath the miscellaneous heading, you should see MPESA transaction order and a status of DEFINED or NOT DEFINED.

How to import M-PESA transaction file

To import the M-PESA transaction file into Mifos, click Admin>Manage Imports> Import Transactions. From the Import format dropdown box, select M-PESA and then choose the Excel file from Safaricom which needs to be imported into the Mifos system. 

  

 Following are the columns in the imported m-PESA file.

Receipt (required) - Receipt ID is proof of payment and a unique MPESA identifier that can be cross-referenced with clients phone receipt. This must be imported into Mifos since needed as reference in the Collection Sheet.

Date (required) - Payment Date. The payment date cannot be before the present date. However, if  backdated transactions have been enabled in Mifos, then the date can be before the present date up until the previous meeting date.  

Details - Contains information payment received from phone number, telephone number, MFI account number. The value of this column is ignored.

Status (required) - One of four statuses displayed - Completed, Attempted, Cancelled, Declined. This value must be Completed or else it is ignored.

Withdrawn - Amount paid from MFI. This is the amount of the payment out from the MFI in the form of a disbursal.

Paid In - Transaction amount paid to MFI. This is the amount of the repayment/deposit from the customer to the MFI. 

Balance - Balance of MFI. This value is ignored during import. 

Balance confirmed - This value is ignored during import. 

Transaction Type (required) - This field determines if this is a repayment or disbursal. For the M-PESA plug-in support repayments and disbursals, if this value is "Pay Utility" it will be treated as a repayment and there must be a corresponding value in the Paid In column. If the value is "Business Payment", it will be treated as a disbursal and there must be a corresponding value in the Withdrawn column. For prior versions of the plug-in that only supported repayments, all values other than "Pay Utility" will be ignored. 

Other Party Info (required) - This field is required and is Safaricom generated phone number and is the phone number that is used to cross-reference the Safaricom M-PESA account with the account in Mifos. The 10 digit number in this column is compared against the Phone Number field under the Client record in Mifos.

Transaction Party Details - This field will include Mifos Product Code if there is one, and other information such as Client's Group ID, etc. A value is required here if no default order to apply transactions has been defined in the .properties configuration file.  If the Mifos Product Code is different than the default order set in ke.co.safaricom.MPesaXlsImporter.ImportTransactionOrder, then this field will include the short names of product(s) applied to the client's accounts.

Logic behind payment application 

If there is a product name specified after a client ID,  then payment is applied to that particular product. If no product name is specified, then all  transaction amounts will be applied according to the default order which was specified initially. 

 For example: Lets assume ke.co.safaricom.MPesaXlsImporter.ImportTransactionOrder  =      AL1, NL1,SP1 where AL1, NL1 and SP1 are product names. In this case, all rows that do      not specify a product name after the client ID will have their transaction amount applied to in this order. Only the next payment due will  be applied.  In this example, if the client owes  $10 on AL1 next instalment and $20 on NL1, and the client pays $100 then those    respective amounts would be applied, and then $70 deposited in SP1.

Repayments versus Disbursals 

Repayments and Deposits will have the Transaction type of Pay Utility and a corresponding value in the Paid In column. Disbursals will have the Transaction Type of Business Payment and a corresponding value in the Withdrawn column.

How to cancel or correct errors during import

If there are errors during import, Mifos displays an appropriate error message. The  screenshot below shows the error message displayed when the file is uploaded with no valid rows. 

  

The screenshot below shows the error messages displayed when rows with import data are found and they are not properly validated. You'll notice that the total amount of transactions to be imported is listed as 0.0 because all transactions have errors. When the total amount to be imported is 0.0, you will not be allowed to submit. See below for a list of common errors and steps to resolve them. 

 

  To correct the error, click the button Edit Import Information.This will direct the user back to the main page displayed below and the corrected file can be uploaded again.

  

 

How to verify that data has been imported 

If there are rows that contain no errors and will successfully be imported, you will see a screen like below with the number of rows that will be imported and a summation of the total transactions to be imported.

 

After uploading the Excel file and clicking Submit, Mifos imports the file and displays a confirmation screen that the import was successful.  

 

 <<screenshot with confirmation message>>

 Once the file has been imported, there is no option to revert the file upload.

Common error messages while importing

 

Row <22> error - Y88CM251 - Missing required data

This error message typically occurs when the order to apply transactions has not been defined. To resolve, either define the default order for payment transactions in your .properties configuration file or manually specify the short code of the product the transaction should apply to in the Transaction Party Details column of your import spreadsheet.  

Row <18> error - Y89QA171 - Invalid transaction date 

This error message typically occurs if you have the transaction date does not fall in the correct range. Transaction date cannot be prior to previous meeting or later than today (i.e. if last meeting date was Feb 18 and today is Feb 24, transaction date must be between Feb 18 and Feb 24.

Row <#> error - <Receipt ID> - Transactions with same Receipt ID have already been imported. 

This error message is displayed if a transaction with that Receipt ID has already been imported and exists in Mifos. This is to prevent duplicate transactions from being imported.

Row <#> error - <Receipt ID> - Date does not begin with expected format (YYYY-MM-DD).  

This error message is displayed if the date is not in the proper format of YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:ss

Row <#> error - <Receipt ID> - Client with mobile number <mobile number> was not found.

This error message if the mobile number specified in the Other Party Info column of the import spreadsheet does not belong to a client in Mifos.  This is the primary way in which Mifos references an M-PESA transaction.  The first 10 digits in the Other Party Info column are recognized as a phone number and compared with the Client's Phone Number field in Mifos. If there is not a match, the message is displayed.

Row <#> error - <Receipt ID> - More than 1 client with mobile number <mobile number> was found.

Likewise, M-PESA accounts must be unique and transactions can only be applied to one customer account; if the phone number matches more than one Phone Number in Mifos, this error message will be displayed.  

 

 

 

How to approve multiple loans (bulk loan approval)

You can approve loans one at a time for each individual client (see How to change the status (approve, close) loan accounts ), or you can approve them all at once. To do the latter, follow these instructions:

  1. Click Clients & Accounts.
  2. In the left navigation pane, at the bottom, click Change Account Status.
    A screen like the following appears:
    mifosapprovebulk.png
  3. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field

    Description

    Example

    Branch

    The branch where these loans are created

    Suarez

    Loan Officer

    The loan officer in charge of these loans

    Sally Magalong

    Type

    Loan category

    Emergency loan 1

    Current Status

    Click Application Pending.


  4. Click Search.
    A list like the following appears: mifosapprovebulk2.png
  5. At the top of the list, next to the Current Status column heading, check the box to select all pending loans at the same time.
  6. At the bottom of the list, in the New Status list, click Approved.
  7. In the Note box, type any information explaining the circumstances of this approval action.
  8. Click Submit.
    A confirmation box appears like the following:  mifosapprovebulk3.png

The loan now appears in the dashboard for each client with a green square indicating that it has been approved.

How to run Reports in Mifos Business Intelligence Suite (Pentaho)

Installing Mifos Business Intelligence Suite

Download Mifos Business Intelligence Suite and follow instructions for installation for either Windows servers or Linux servers

Accessing Mifos Business Intelligence Suite Reports

Once Mifos Business Intelligence is installed, follow these instructions to select and run reports:

Selecting Values for Parameters of Each Report

Each report has a different number of parameters which can be selected to filter the data displayed in the report.  These filters and parameters were created when building the original report and can only be customized through the Pentaho Report Designer. 

We will go through several reports to show an example of creating a report in each of the different formats. 

Generating a Report in PDF format

PDF format is good when you simply need to view the data of the report or share it with an external audience and do no further data manipulation.

This example will show how to generate a PDF of the Balance Outstanding by Source of Funds reportshowing balance outstanding and other figures per source of funds in Mifos.

  1. Double-click the Balance Outstanding by Source of Funds from lefthand folder repository.
  2. For Office, select which office to run the report for, I've chosen office-2.
  3. For Source of Funds, select which Source of Funds to sort the report by. In this example, I've left it all.
  4. Choose date in  As On Date. I've left it as today - 2011-05-09. 
  5. For Output Type, select PDF
  6. Click Run Report.

     

PDF will be generated in the same tab. Pressing Clear Report will clear out the report and allow you to generate it once more with different parameters in the same tab.

*Note: When attempting to save the report, some browsers like Chrome might not display the full Adobe Reader toolbar and you may need to right-click the report itself to bring up the "Save As" option. 

Generating a Report in Excel format

Running a report in Excel format is good for sets of data that you need to sort, manipulate, or analyze further.  

This example will show to how generate an Excel spreadsheet of the Mifos Transactions - Detail Report, a report can be run at the end of day to display all transactions made in Mifos that day.  This report shows each detailed transaction.  This report is useful for reconciliation with accounting and a good example of a report to be generated in Excel. 

This report displays every transaction in Mifos; if a small date range or applicable filters or not selected, it can be a very lengthy report. 

  1. Double-click  Mifos Transactions - Detail from lefthand folder repository.
  2. Select a date range to display the transactions. I will select a small time frame, choosing 2010-03-02 for the From Date and 2010-03-05 for the To Date.
  3. For Branch Office, I selected office-2. 
  4. Based on my Branch Office selection, the Personnel field will be populated with staff from office-2. I chose user-10 for this example.
  5. For Transaction Type, I can select a single value for any type of transaction processed by Mifos or I can leave it ALL. For this example, I selected ALL.
  6. For Mode of Payment, I can choose from Cash, Cheque, Voucher (whatever the payment types are that you've configured in Mifos). I selected Cash. 
  7. Choose EXCEL for Output Type.
  8. Click Run Report.
Depending on your internet browser, your Excel file will be generated and downloaded locally to your machine.  

Generating a Report in HTML format

Running a report in HTML format is good for viewing or embedding the report in another web page or web application.

This example will show how to generate an HTML version of the MFI Progress report which shows a comparison of 2 months specified by the user of the MFI's metrics, arrears, loan balances, etc.   This report is useful in providing information on progress at the MFI - for example, if they are expanding their outreach at a certain pace, or if their PAR has increased or decreased.

  1. Double-click MFI Progress from lefthand folder repository.
  2. For Office, I selected office-2.
  3. Select two months for comparison. For Month 1, I chose Mar 2011. For Month 2, I chose April 2011.
  4. Choose  HTML for Output Type.
  5. Click Run Report.
Report will be generated in the same tab. You can right click to open it in a new tab or frame and then can click right click to save the page as an HTML file.  

How to manage and run BIRT reports

Mifos ships with a large set of standard reports. The majority of these are written in Pentaho and part of the Mifos Business Intelligence Suite.  A limited number (which are being phased out) are written in BIRT and directly embedded in the Mifos User Interface. This section applies to those.

Accessing and using these reports does not require that you install BIRT (Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools, a free, open-source application from Eclipse). However, if you want to customize the reports, you must install BIRT. You can also create your own reports using BIRT.

The three reports are as follows:

  1. Collection Sheet Report: Helps Loan Officers organize and prepare for their repayment collection meetings with clients and groups. See “How to enter Collection Sheet data” for information on how to collect the data that will appear in this report.
  2. Branch Cash Confirmation Report: Assists management and accounting in tracking daily cash inflows and outflows.
  3. Branch Progress Report: Helps management monitor office progress.

You generate reports from the Reports tab. To change how the reports appear on the Reports tab or to edit the appearance of the reports themselves (by editing or creating your own reports templates), click Admin > View report templates and Admin > Upload report templates.

For complete information on the current state and usage of Mifos reports, see the reports guide.

You can also create and manage BIRT-created administrative documents such a receipt forms, and you can decide when these forms are available during procedures (such as loan account applications).  See How to manage administrative documents for more details.

How to upload new report templates

You can upload new report templates from the View Reports page, or you can click Admin > Upload Reports Templates. Note: All templates must be BIRT files with the .rptdesign format.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Upload Reports Template. The following screen appears: 

    Mifos Report Template
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

     Field

     Description

     Report Title

     Title for the report.

     Report Category

    The kind of report this is (use the categories that you or your administrator set up during configuration).

     Select Report Template

    Click Choose File, browse your computer to find the report template file, and double-click it.


  3. The filename now appears in this section. If you have chosen a non-BIRT file, you will see the following error message: "Please choose a Birt report to upload>>"
  4. Click Preview to review your work and (if you like) render the actual report template.
  5. If you want to make changes, click the Edit button, make changes, and click Preview again. To change report information, see the "How to change report templates" procedure below.
  6. When you are satisfied with the template, click Submit.

How to view report templates

Mifos includes three standard reports that are already uploaded into BIRT, the standard reporting tool for Mifos. To see other report templates, click Admin > View Reports Templates. The list of templates might look like the following:

2mifosviewreporttemplate

How to change report templates

 You can change certain things about existing uploaded report templates within Mifos:

Follow these instructions:

  1. From the list of report templates, click the Edit button next to the report template.
    A screen like the following appears:

    Mifos Edit Report Template
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:
     Field  Description
     Report Title
     Change the title here.
     Report Category
     Change the category here.
     Report Status
     Active or Inactive.
     Select Report Template
     Click Choose File, browse your computer for a BIRT file, and double-click it. The new filename appears.
  3. Click Preview to review your work.
  4. If you want to make changes, click the Edit button, make changes, and click Preview again.
  5. When you are satisfied with your changes, click Submit.
If you want to make further changes to the reports, you need to download them (click the Download button), make changes within BIRT, and upload them again.

How to define a new report category

 You can divide the reports available in Mifos into categories. Default categories are as follows:

 Report Category
 Examples
 Client detail  Collection Sheet report, General ledger, Membership IDs
 Performance  Financial indicators, Program performance indicators
 Center  Daily Activity Summary
 Loan Product Detail  Loan Disbursement
 Status  Loan portfolio aging
 Analysis  Branch cash confirmation report, Branch progress report
 Miscellaneous  

These categories can be edited.

Follow these instructions:

  1. Click Admin > Define New Report Category. The following screen appears:

    Mifos Report Category

  2. In the Category Name box, type the name you want for this category and click Preview to review your work.
  3. If you want to make changes, click Edit Category Information, make changes, and click Preview again.
  4. When you are satisfied with the category, click Submit.
    The category now appears when you click Admin > View Reports Category. It also appears when you click the Reports tab to see all available reports.

How to create a report

You can design and build your own report templates using either Java or SQL. First, however, you need to download the BIRT software. For step-by-step instructions on how to build a report template in BIRT, see http://mifos.org/documentation/reporting/building-your-own-reports-0

How to run reports

Follow these instructions:
  1. Click Reports and then click any of the report links.
    If you clicked Branch Progress Report, for example, you might see a screen like this:
    mifosreportcash
  2. All reports ask for different information. For this report, follow the next steps:
  3. In the Select Branch list, click the branch whose progress you want to see a summary of.
  4. In the Enter Date box, type the day (XX), month (XX), and year (XXXX) that you want the report to give information for.
  5. Click OK.
    The report appears in PDF form. You can then download it and print it.
    mifosreports

How to manage administrative documents

How to upload administrative documents

  1. Click Admin > Upload admin documents.
    This screen appears:
    mifosuploadadmin
  2. Enter information using the descriptions in the following table:

    Field

    Description

    Example

    Administrative Document title

    The title for this document

    Voucher receipt

    Account Type

    Savings or Loan

    Savings

    Show When Status

    The status during which this document will be available to the user to print. Click the status and click Add>>. The document can be available in more than one status.

    Active

    Select Administrative Document

    Click Choose File, browse your computer for a BIRT-created administrative document, and double-click it. Its name appears next to the box.


  3. Click Preview to review your choices.
  4. If you want to make changes, click Edit document information, make changes, and click Submit again.
  5. When you are satisfied with your choices, click Submit.

How to view and edit administrative documents

To view the entire list of administrative documents that have already been uploaded, click View admin documents. If you want to edit the basic fields of the document, as in the table above, click Edit, make changes, and click Preview and then Submit. If you want to change the layout or the data fields, click Download, make changes in BIRT, and upload the document to Mifos again.

How to attach administrative documents

MFIs can use BIRT, the same reporting tool used to create reports at the head office level, to create a set of administrative documents that can be attached to specific loan and savings accounts and printed as needed. The following might be available as administrative documents: a voucher, payment book, disbursal receipt, and payment receipt.

How to attach a payment receipt to a loan payment

See How to manage administrative documents for instructions on how to upload administrative documents.  After doing so, assume that an Administrative Document called "Payment Receipt" has already been uploaded to Mifos.

Follow these instructions:

  1. In any Search box, type the borrower name, borrower system ID, or loan account number and click Search.
  2. In the list that appears, click the correct information and navigate to the loan account details page.
  3. In the Account Details section, under Administrative Documents, click Payment Receipt.
    The receipt appears, showing the amount paid.
  4. Print this receipt for the borrower.


Introduction to Question Groups

Question Groups provide a means for collecting information about a user or a group that can then be used, for example, when assessing loan applications, poverty levels, and for measuring impact and creating exit and collateral surveys.  MFIs create a common set of  questions. Users can then choose from these questions when defining new question groups. Question Groups can be attached to entities or workflows.  The same question group can be attached multiple times to the same entity to track historical changes over time.  Question Groups replace both Additional Field and Survey functionality in Mifos 1.6.x and lower.

How to view and edit a question

To view a question:

  1. On the Admin tab, click View Questions under "Manage Questions." 

    The “View Questions” page opens and displays a list of the questions. (Note: No other information except the question title can be seen on the "View Questions" page.)

  2. Click on the desired question to display the question, answer type, and the answer choices associated with the question.

To edit a question:

  1. Click Edit on the “View Questions” page.
  2. In the “Edit Question” page that displays, the user may:

Notes:
  1. A note is displayed on the Edit Question page at all points of time which says : "Significant modification of questions could affect reporting."
  2. To change the status, click on the corresponding radio button. By default, the status of the question is set to "Active."
  3. While editing a question for single select/ multi select / smart select / smart select:
  1. Click Add to post the answer choice. (Click Remove to remove the new answer choice.)
  2. Click Submit to save the changes or Cancel to discard the changes.

How to add a new question

Questions

Question Group questions are defined from the Add New Question link on the Admin tab, or during creation of a Question Group. For each question, the user specifies the question, the answer type and the possible answers. (Note: Once a question has been created, it can never be deleted. It can only be set as inactive.)

Details on the attributes of each question can be found in the Question Group functional specification.

To add a question:

  1. On the Admin tab, click Add New Question under "Manage Questions."

  2. In the “Add Questions” page that displays:

    1. Enter a question.
    2. Select the answer type from the drop-down menu:

How to view and edit question groups

View Question Groups lists all question groups created with the workflow to which it is applied. Because a question group can be applied to multiple workflows, a question group may be listed multiple times.

To view a question group:

  1. On the Admin tab, click View Question Groups under "Manage Questions."

  2. In the "View Question Groups" page that displays, click on a question group to view.

  3. The question group page opens and displays the following:

Note: To view a question, click on the question. To edit a question, refer to "How to view and edit a question."

To edit a question group:

  1. Click Edit on the page for the displayed question group.
  2. In the "Edit Question Group" page that displays, the user may: 


Notes:
  1. To change the status, click on the corresponding radio button. By default, the status of the question is set to "Active."
  2. If the section heading is left blank, questions that are added are posted under the "Misc" section.
  3. Section headings cannot be edited.
  4. Within a question group, a question cannot be a part of more than one section.
  5. To mark a question as mandatory, click the "Mandatory" checkbox.
  6. To change the order of a question, click the up or down arrow beside the question.
  7. To select an existing question, click Select from list of existing questions:
  1. Make the desired changes.
  2. Click Submit to save the changes or Cancel to discard the changes.

How to add a question group

Question Groups

A new question group is defined by clicking the Add New Question Group link on the Admin tab or the define a new question group link on the "View Question Groups" page. The user names the question group, specifies the workflow or entity to which the question group applies, and adds questions to the question group.

To add  a question group:

  1. On the Admin tab, click Add New Question Group under "Manage Questions."

  2. In the “Add Question Group” page that displays:


  1. Enter a question group title in the "Question Group Title" text box.
  2. In the "Applies To" text box, select the workflow or entity to which the new question group applies.
  3. If the response will be editable, indicate this by clicking on the checkbox. Leave it unchecked if the response will not be editable. 
  4. Keep the default section heading that is displayed in the text box or enter a new section heading.
  5. Check the appropriate radio button to indicate whether an existing and/or new question will be added to the section.
  6. Click Add Questions to post the question.
  7. After the question is completed, the user may:
  1. Make the desired changes.
  2. Click Submit to save the changes or Cancel to discard the changes.

The following figure depicts the "Add Question Group" page with a new section title and two existing questions posted.

Notes:
  1. Hold down the Ctrl key to select more than one workflow.
  2. To add a new section heading:
    1. Enter the new section title in the "Section Heading" text box.
    2. Click Select from list of existing questions and select a question (or questions) from the "Select Questions" menu; click Add new question to create a new question.
  3. Adding questions:

Progress out of Poverty Index

Introduction to the PPI

The Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) Survey is a country-specific question group that is used to determine the likelihood of a client belonging to a specific poverty level. A MFI uses this information on a portfolio level to calculate overall poverty rates. At the client level, the information is used to determine which products to offer a client or to track loan repayments/retention/recruitment rates of clients falling into each of the poverty buckets.

The surveys for each country include 10 questions. For each question, points are associated with each possible answer. The total number of points for a completed survey is called the poverty index score. For each country, a poverty likelihood chart is defined that maps the poverty index score to a percentage that indicates the percentage likelihoods of poverty for the client.

How to add PPI Question Groups into Mifos

 

 

 

How to activate a question group

To activate PPI for a specific country:

  1. On the Admin tab, click Activate Question Group under "Manage Questions."

  2. In the “Activate Question Group” page that displays, click the down arrow beside the "Select Question Group" menu selection box.

  3. Use the scroll bar or the up and down arrows to locate the desired question group (country). Highlight the question qroup and click to select it.

  4. Click Submit to save the selected question group or Cancel to return to the "Administrative tasks" page. If Submit is selected, the question group is added to the "Create Client" workflow and the user returns to the "Administrative tasks" page. The changes are reflected on the "View Question Groups" page.

  5. On the Admin tab, click View Question Groups under "Manage Questions."
  6. In the "View Question Groups" page that displays, click the newly added question group.

  7. In the question group page that displays are the following:

How to attach a question group

One of the definitive features of Question Groups is that they can be attached at any stage of the workflow in Mifos. Previously you could only attach surveys to different records with no control over the workflow stage they get displayed at.

In this section, we demonstrate the previously-existing capability to attach question groups to various records. In the next section, we'll demonstrate attaching to stages of the workflow (i.e. Create, Approve, View)  

Attaching a Question Group at the View Client Stage

To attach a question group (or survey):

  1. Click the Clients and Account" tab.
  2. In the page that displays, perform one of the following actions:

To search by name, system ID, phone number or account number:

 

  1. Enter the search criteria in the "Search for:" text box.
  2. Select a specific branch office in which to search (if desired) or keep the default ("All Branch offices").
  3. Click Search.
  4. In the page that displays, click the desired client name.
  5. In the client page that displays, click Attach a Survey on the right side of the page under "Surveys."
  6. In the client's attach survey page:
    1. Click the down arrow on the "Select a Question Group" menu box.
    2. Select the desired question group. (Note: The question group must be "Active" to display in the selection menu.)
    3. Click Continue.
  7. Enter the requested data in the text box and click Submit to save the entry (entries) Cancel to discard the entry.

    Attaching a Question Group at the View Center stage

    To search by branch office:

     

    1. Click the scroll bar or the up and down arrows to move to the desired branch office.
    2. Click the branch office.
    3. In the branch office page that displays, perform one of the following actions:

  • In the center account information page that displays, click Attach a Survey on the right side of the page under "Surveys."
  • In the center's attach survey page:
    1. Click the down arrow on the "Select a Question Group" menu box.
    2. Select the desired question group. (Note: The question group must be "Active" to display in the selection menu.)
    3. Click Continue.
  • Enter the requested data in the text box and click Submit to save the entry (entries) Cancel to discard the entry.
  • How to assign a question group to a different stage of a workflow

    Part of the power of the new question groups data collection tool is the ability to embed these question groups at any stage of a workflow. A question group can be created for any of the following workflows:

    Associating question groups to "Create" workflows

    To associate a question group with a "Create" workflow, perform the following actions:
    1. On the Admin tab, click Add New Question Group under "Manage Questions."

    2. In the “Add Question Group” page that displays:
    1. Enter a question group title in the "Question Group Title" text box.
    2. In the "Applies To" text box, select a "Create" workflow.
    3. If the response will be editable, indicate this by clicking on the checkbox. Leave it unchecked if the response will not be editable.
    4. Keep the default section heading that is displayed in the text box or enter a new section heading.


    5. Check the appropriate radio button to indicate whether an existing and/or new question will be added to the section.
    6. Select the desired question or create a new question.
    7. Click Add Questions to post the question.
    8. After the question is completed, the user may:
    1. Make the desired changes.
    2. Click Submit to save the changes or Cancel to discard the changes.
    Notes:

    Associating question groups to "View" workflows

    To associate a question group with a "View" workflow, perform the following actions:

    1. On the Admin tab, click Add New Question Group under "Manage Questions."

    2. In the “Add Question Group” page that displays:
      1. Enter a question group title in the "Question Group Title" text box.
      2. In the "Applies To" text box, select a "View" workflow.
      3. If the response will be editable, indicate this by clicking on the checkbox. Leave it unchecked if the response will not be editable.
      4. Keep the default section heading that is displayed in the text box or enter a new section heading.
      5. Check the appropriate radio button to indicate whether an existing and/or new question will be added to the section.

      6. Select the desired question or create a new question.
      7. Click Add Questions to post the question.
      8. After the question is completed:

    Rules for how to reschedule repayment

    1. If the client did not make the payment for an installment:
      1. For flat-interest loans, in next installment, "Penalty + Payment1 + Payment2"
      2. For declining-balance loans, the next installment will be recalculated to include the missed installment. (There is no concept of payment 1 and payment 2 in this case.)
    2. If the repayment day falls on a holiday and repayment is set to the next repayment, the client must pay two installments on the next repayment day. No penalty will be calculated for that period.
    3. A penalty for failing to pay an installment is calculated only for the affected installment period.  The same approach is applied to subsequent installments.
    4. The grace period can be modified:
      1. For a loan account whose grace period has not ended.
      2. Only for future installments if the grace period has ended.
    5. If client does not have any meeting date, then repayment start date is the actual disbursement date + repayment frequency + grace period.