control cycle, control period or k-loop is a pass during the performance of an instrument, in which all k- and a-variables are renewed. The time for one control cycle is measured in samples and determined by the ksmps constant in the orchestra header. If your sample rate is 44100 and your ksmps value is 10, the time for one control cycle is 1/4410 = 0.000227 seconds. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.
control rate or k-rate (kr) is the number of control cycles per second. It can be calculated as the relationship of the sample rate sr and the number of samples in one control period ksmps. If your sample rate is 44100 and your ksmps value is 10, your control rate is 4410, so you have 4410 control cycles per second.
dummy f-statement see f-statement
f-statement or function table statement is a score line which starts with a "f" and generates a function table. See the chapter about function tables for more information. A dummy f-statement is a statement like "f 0 3600" which looks like a function table statement, but instead of generating any table, it serves just for running Csound for a certain time (here 3600 seconds = 1 hour).
i-time or init-time or i-rate signify the time in which all the variables starting with an "i" get their values. These values are just given once for an instrument call. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.
k-loop see control cycle
k-time is the time during the performance of an instrument, after the initialization. Variables starting with a "k" can alter their values in each ->control cycle. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.
k-rate see control rate
performance pass see control cycle
time stretching can be done in various ways in Csound. See sndwarp, waveset, pvstanal and the Granular Synthesis opcodes. In the frequency domain, you can use the pvs-opcodes pvsfread, pvsdiskin, pvscale, pvshift.